Analysis of Forbush decreases observed using a muon telescope in Antarctica starting on 21 June 2015
- Received Date: 2017-11-06
- Accepted Date: 2018-08-25
- Available Online: 2018-12-05
Abstract: A cosmic-ray muon telescope has been collecting data since the end of 2014, which was shortly after the telescope was built in the Zhongshan Station of Antarctica. The telescope is the first observation device to be built by Chinese scientists in Antarctica. The pressure change is very strong in Zhongshan station. The count rate of the pressure correction results shows that the large variations in the count rate are likely caused by pressure fluctuations. During the period from 18 June to 22 June 2015, four halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs) were ejected from the Sun. These CMEs initiated a series of Forbush decreases (FD) when they reached the Earth. We conducted a comprehensive study of the intensity fluctuations of galactic cosmic rays recorded during FDs. The intensity fluctuations used in this study were collected by cosmic ray detectors of multiple stations (Zhongshan, McMurdo, South Polar, and Nagoya), and the solar wind measurements were collected by ACE and WIND. The profile of the FD of 22 June demonstrated a four-step decrease. The traditional one- or two-step FD classification method does not adequately explain the FD profile results. The interaction between the faster CME that occurred on 21 June 2015 and the two slow CMEs of the earlier few days should be considered. The cosmic ray intensities of the South Pole, McMurdo, and Zhongshan stations have similar hourly variations, whereas the galactic cosmic rays recorded between polar and non-polar locations are distinct. The FD pre-increase of 22 June 2015 for the Nagoya muon telescope (non-polar location) lags those of the McMurdo and Zhongshan stations (polar locations) by 1 h. The FD onset of 22 June 2015 for the Nagoya muon telescope lags those of the polar locations by 1 h.