Highlights
  • A massless scalar field in Robertson-Walker spacetimes: Adiabatic regularization and Green’s function
    We study adiabatic regularization of a coupling massless scalar field in general spatially flat Robertson-Walker (RW) spacetimes. For the conformal coupling, the 2nd-order regularized power spectrum and 4th-order regularized stress tensor are zero, and no trace anomaly exists in general RW spacetimes. This is a new result that exceeds those found in de Sitter space. For the minimal coupling, the regularized spectra are also zero in the radiation-dominant and matter-dominant stages, as well as in de Sitter space. The vanishing of these adiabatically regularized spectra is further confirmed by direct regularization of the Green's function. For a general coupling and general RW spacetimes, the regularized spectra can be negative under the conventional prescription. At a higher order of regularization, the spectra will generally become positive, but will also acquire IR divergence, which is inevitable for a massless field. To avoid the IR divergence, the inside-horizon regularization is applied. Through these procedures, nonnegative UV- and IR-convergent power spectrum and spectral energy density will eventually be achieved.
  • Complete reduction of integrals in two-loop five-light-parton scattering amplitudes
    We reduce all the most complicated Feynman integrals in two-loop five-light-parton scattering amplitudes to basic master integrals, while other integrals can be reduced even easier. Our results are expressed as systems of linear relations in the block-triangular form, very efficient for numerical calculations. Our results are crucial for complete next-to-next-to-leading order quantum chromodynamics calculations for three-jet, photon, and/or hadron production at hadron colliders. To determine the block-triangular relations, we develop an efficient and general method, which may provide a practical solution to the bottleneck problem of reducing multiloop multiscale integrals.
  • Systematic study of odd-mass 151-161Pm and 154,156Pm isotopes using projected shell model
    Inspired by the availability of recent experimental as well as theoretical data on the energy levels of odd-mass 151-161Pm and odd-odd 154,156Pm, we applied the theoretical framework of the projected shell model to further understand the nuclear structure of these nuclei. The calculations closely reproduced the experimental data reported for the yrast bands of these isotopes by assuming an axial (prolate) deformation of ~0.3. Other properties along the yrast line, such as transition energies and transition probabilities, have also been discussed. Band diagrams are plotted to understand their intrinsic multi-quasiparticle structure, which turn out to be dominated by 1-quasiparticle bands for the odd-mass Pm isotopes and 2-quasiparticle bands for the doubly-odd Pm isotopes under study. The present study not only confirms the recently reported experimental/theoretical data, but also extends the already available information on the energy levels and adds new information regarding the reduced transition probabilities.
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