In this study, we obtain the universal function corresponding to the diffractive process and show that the cross section exhibits geometrical scaling. It is observed that diffractive theory according to the color dipole approach at small-x is a convenient framework that reveals the color transparency and saturation phenomena. We also calculate the contribution of heavy quark production in the diffractive cross section at high energy that is determined by the small size dipole configuration. The ratio of the diffractive cross section to the total cross section in electron-proton collision is the other important quantity that is computed in this work.
Nucleon properties and structure should be modified by short-range correlations (SRC) among nucleons. By analyzing SRC ratio data, we extract the mass of a nucleon in an SRC pair and the expected number of pn-SRC pairs in deuterium, under the assumption that the SRC nucleon mass is universal for different nuclei. The nucleon mass of a two-nucleon SRC pair is
In the context of the double folding optical model, the strong refractive effect for elastic scattering of 11Li + 12C and 11Li + 28Si systems at incident energies of 29, 50, and 60 MeV/n is studied. Real folded potentials are generated based on a variety of nucleon-nucleon interactions with the suggested density distributions for the halo structure of 11Li nuclei. The rearrangement term (RT) of the extended realistic density dependent CDM3Y6 effective interaction is considered. The imaginary potential was taken in the traditional standard Woods-Saxon form. Satisfactory results for the calculated potentials are obtained, with a slight effect of the RT in CDM3Y6 potential. Successful reproduction with a normalization factor close to one for the observed angular distributions of the elastic scattering differential cross section has been achieved using the derived potentials. The obtained reaction cross-section is studied as a guide by extrapolating our calculations and previous results.
We extend the auxiliary-mass-flow (AMF) method originally developed for Feynman loop integration to calculate integrals which also involve phase-space integration. The flow of the auxiliary mass from the boundary (
In this contribution, the
We investigate the axion-like particle (ALP)-photon oscillation effect in the high-energy
China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL) is ideal for studying solar, geo-, and supernova neutrinos. A precise measurement of the cosmic-ray background is essential in proceeding with R&D research for these MeV-scale neutrino experiments. Using a 1-ton prototype detector for the Jinping Neutrino Experiment (JNE), we detected 264 high-energy muon events from a 645.2-day dataset from the first phase of CJPL (CJPL-I), reconstructed their directions, and measured the cosmic-ray muon flux to be
We use the two lowest weight states to fit E2 strengths connecting the
By applying the nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics factorization formalism to
It has been shown that the Christodoulou version of the strong cosmic censorship (SCC) conjecture can be violated for a scalar field in a near-extremal Reissner-Nordstrom-de Sitter black hole. In this paper, we investigate the effects of higher derivative corrections to the Einstein-Hilbert action on the validity of SCC, by considering a neutral massless scalar perturbation in
The level structures of
We demonstrate that the recently proposed soft gluon factorization (SGF) is equivalent to the nonrelativistic QCD (NRQCD) factorization for heavy quarkonium production or decay, which means that, for any given process, these two factorization theories are either both valid or both violated. We use two methods to arrive at this conclusion. In the first method, we apply the two factorization theories to the physical process
It was found that dark matter (DM) in an intermediate-mass-ratio-inspiral (IMRI) system has a significant enhancement effect on the orbital eccentricity of a stellar massive compact object, such as a black hole (BH), which may be tested by space-based gravitational wave (GW) detectors, including LISA, Taiji, and Tianqin in future observations. In this paper, we study the enhancement effect of the eccentricity for an IMRI under different DM density profiles and center BH masses. Our results are as follows: (1) in terms of the general DM spike distribution, the enhancement of the eccentricity is basically consistent with the power-law profile, which indicates that it is reasonable to adopt the power-law profile; (2) in the presence of a DM spike, the different masses of the center BH will affect the eccentricity, which provides a new way for us to detect the BH's mass; and (3) considering the change in the eccentricity in the presence and absence of a DM spike, we find that it is possible to distinguish DM models by measuring the eccentricity at a scale of approximately
In the present work, we used five different versions of the quark-meson coupling (QMC) model to compute astrophysical quantities related to the GW170817 event and the neutron star cooling process. Two of the models are based on the original bag potential structure and three versions consider a harmonic oscillator potential to confine quarks. The bag-like models also incorporate the pasta phase used to describe the inner crust of neutron stars. With a simple method studied in the present work, we show that the pasta phase does not play a significant role. Moreover, the QMC model that satisfies the GW170817 constraints with the lowest slope of the symmetry energy exhibits a cooling profile compatible with observational data.
In this paper, by introducing the Lorentz-invariance-violation (LIV) class of dispersion relations (DR) suppressed by the second power
We present a dark matter model to explain the excess events in the electron recoil data recently reported by the Xenon1T experiment. In our model, dark matter
We investigated different entanglement properties of a holographic QCD (hQCD) model with a critical end point at the finite baryon density. Firstly, we considered the holographic entanglement entropy (HEE) of this hQCD model in a spherical shaped region and a strip shaped region. It was determined that the HEE of this hQCD model in both regions can reflect QCD phase transition. Moreover, although the area formulas and minimal area equations of the two regions were quite different, the HEE exhibited a similar behavior on the QCD phase diagram. Therefore, we assert that the behavior of the HEE on the QCD phase diagram is independent of the shape of the subregions. However, the HEE is not an ideal parameter for the characterization of the entanglement between different subregions of a thermal system. As such, we investigated the mutual information (MI), conditional mutual information (CMI), and the entanglement of purification (Ep) in different strip shaped regions. We determined that the three entanglement quantities exhibited some universal behavior; their values did not change significantly in the hadronic matter phase but increased rapidly with the increase in T and
It is well-known that direct analytic continuation of the DGLAP evolution kernel (splitting functions) from space-like to time-like kinematics breaks down at three loops. We identify the origin of this breakdown as due to splitting functions not being analytic functions of external momenta. However, splitting functions can be constructed from the squares of (generalized) splitting amplitudes. We establish the rules of analytic continuation for splitting amplitudes, and use them to determine the analytic continuation of certain holomorphic and anti-holomorphic part of splitting functions and transverse-momentum dependent distributions. In this way we derive the time-like splitting functions at three loops without ambiguity. We also propose a reciprocity relation for singlet splitting functions, and provide non-trivial evidence that it holds in QCD at least through three loops.
A radial basis function network (RBFN) approach is adopted for the first time to optimize the calculation of
The resonance state of the
The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) features a 20 kt multi-purpose underground liquid scintillator sphere as its main detector. Some of JUNO's features make it an excellent location for
Recent low-redshift observations have yielded the present-time Hubble parameter value
Inspired by the hypothesis of the black hole molecule, with the help of the Hawking temperature, entropy, and the thermodynamic curvature of black holes, we propose a new measure of the relation between the interaction and the thermal motion of molecules of the AdS black hole as a preliminary and coarse-grained description. The proposed measure introduces a dimensionless ratio to characterize this relation and shows that there is indeed competition between the interactions of black hole molecules and their thermal motion. For a charged AdS black hole, below the critical dimensionless pressure, there are three transitions between the interaction and thermal motion states. In contrast, above the critical dimensionless pressure, only one transition takes place. For the Schwarzschild-AdS and five-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet AdS black holes, a transition always occurs between the interaction and thermal motion states.
The cosmic distance relation (DDR) associates the angular diameters distance (
Recently, an action principle for the
The heavy quark effective theory vastly reduces the weak-decay form factors of hadrons containing one heavy quark. Many works attempt to directly apply this theory to hadrons with multiple heavy quarks. In this paper, we examine this confusing application by the instantaneous Bethe-Salpeter method from a phenomenological perspective, and give the numerical results for
It was previously claimed by the author that black holes can be considered as topological insulators. Both black holes and topological insulators have boundary modes, and the boundary modes can be described by an effective BF theory. In this paper, the boundary modes on the horizons of black holes are analyzed using methods developed for topological insulators. BTZ black holes are analyzed first, and the results are found to be compatible with previous works. The results are then generalized to Kerr black holes, for which new results are obtained: dimensionless right- and left-temperatures can be defined and have well behavior in both the Schwarzschild limit
We present a dispersive representation of the
The thick-target yield of the 9Be(d, α0)7Li and 9Be(d, α1)7Li* reactions has been first directly measured over deuteron energies from 66 to 94 keV. The obtained S(Ei) of α0 and α1 have similar trends calculated by the thin-target yield, consistent with Yan’s report within the errors. Furthermore, the parametric expression of S(E) was obtained to calculate the theoretical thick target yield, and it roughly agrees with the experimental thick target yield.
The problem of the deuteron interaction with lithium nuclei, treated as a system of two coupled pointlike clusters, is formulated to calculate the cross sections of the d+Li reaction. The d+Li reaction mechanism is described using the Faddeev theory for the three-body problem of deuteron-nucleus interaction. This theory is slightly extended for calculation of the stripping processes 6Li(d,p)7Li, 7Li(d,p)8Li, 6Li(d,n)7Be, and 7Li(d,n)8Be, as well as fragmentation reactions yielding tritium,
We investigate the evolution of abundance of the asymmetric thermal Dark Matter when its annihilation rate at chemical decoupling is boosted by the Sommerfeld enhancement. Next, we discuss the effect of kinetic decoupling on the relic abundance of asymmetric Dark Matter when the interaction rate depends on velocity. Usually, the relic density of asymmetric Dark Matter is analyzed in the frame of chemical decoupling. Indeed, after decoupling from chemical equilibrium, asymmetric Dark Matter particles and anti-particles are still in kinetic equilibrium for a while. This has no effect for the case of s-wave annihilation since there is no temperature dependence in this case. However, kinetic decoupling has impacts for the case of p-wave annihilation and Sommerfeld enhanced s- and p-wave annihilations. We investigate in detail the extent to which kinetic decoupling affects the relic abundance of asymmetric Dark Matter particles and anti-particles. We find the constraints on the cross section and asymmetry factor using observational data of the relic density of Dark Matter.
Recently, a novel four-dimensional Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet (4EGB) theory of gravity was proposed by Glavan and Lin [D. Glavan and C. Lin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 124, 081301 (2020)], which includes a regularized Gauss-Bonnet term using the re-scalaring of the Gauss-Bonnet coupling constant
In this paper, we study the symmetry energy and the Wigner energy in the binding energy formula for atomic nuclei. We simultaneously extract the
The establishment of a possible connection between neutrino emission and gravitational-wave (GW) bursts is important to our understanding of the physical processes that occur when black holes or neutron stars merge. In the Daya Bay experiment, using the data collected from December 2011 to August 2017, a search was performed for electron-antineutrino signals that coincided with detected GW events, including GW150914, GW151012, GW151226, GW170104, GW170608, GW170814, and GW170817. We used three time windows of ±10, ±500, and ±1000 s relative to the occurrence of the GW events and a neutrino energy range of 1.8 to 100 MeV to search for correlated neutrino candidates. The detected electron-antineutrino candidates were consistent with the expected background rates for all the three time windows. Assuming monochromatic spectra, we found upper limits (90% confidence level) of the electron-antineutrino fluence of (1.13 − 2.44)×1011 cm−2 at 5 MeV to 8.0×107 cm−2 at 100 MeV for the three time windows. Under the assumption of a Fermi-Dirac spectrum, the upper limits were found to be (5.4 − 7.0)×109 cm−2 for the three time windows.
We perform a potential analysis for the holographic Schwinger effect in a deformed
We investigate the bulk viscosity of strange quark matter in the framework of the equivparticle model, where analytical formulae are obtained for certain temperature ranges, which can be readily applied to those with various quark mass scalings. In the case of adopting a quark mass scaling with both linear confinement and perturbative interactions, the obtained bulk viscosity increases by
In this article, we study the ground states and the first radial excited states of the flavor antitriplet heavy baryon states
Experimental data on
Qualities of nucleons, such as the fundamental parameter mass, might be modified in extreme conditions relative to those of isolated nucleons. We show the ratio of the EMC-effect tagged nucleon mass to that of the free one (
The problem of the flat limits of the scalar and spinor fields on the de Sitter expanding universe is considered in the traditional adiabatic vacuum and in the new rest frame vacuum we proposed recently, in which the frequencies are separated in the rest frames as in special relativity. It is shown that only in the rest frame vacuum can the Minkowskian flat limit be reached naturally for any momentum, whereas in the adiabatic vacuum, this limit remains undefined in rest frames in which the momentum vanishes. An important role is played by the phases of the fundamental solutions in the rest frame vacuum, which must be regularized to obtain the desired Minkowskian flat limits. This procedure fixes the phases of the scalar mode functions and Dirac spinors, resulting in their definitive expressions derived here. The physical consequence is that, in the rest frame vacuum, the flat limits of the one-particle operators are simply the corresponding operators of special relativity.
We consider a class of models with extra complex scalars that are charged under both the Standard Model and a hidden strongly coupled
We attempt to clarify several aspects concerning the recently presented four-dimensional Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity. We argue that the limiting procedure outlined in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 124, 081301 (2020)] generally involves ill-defined terms in the four dimensional field equations. Potential ways to circumvent this issue are discussed, alongside remarks regarding specific solutions of the theory. We prove that, although linear perturbations are well behaved around maximally symmetric backgrounds, the equations for second-order perturbations are ill-defined even around a Minkowskian background. Additionally, we perform a detailed analysis of the spherically symmetric solutions and find that the central curvature singularity can be reached within a finite proper time.
The spectroscopic parameters and decay channels of the axial-vector tetraquark
We revisit the hyperon weak radiative decays in the framework of the non-relativistic constituent quark model. This study confirms the nonlocal feature of the hyperon weak radiative transition operators, which are dominated by the pole terms, and an overall self-consistent description of the available experimental data for the Cabibbo-favored hyperon weak radiative decays is presented. It provides a natural mechanism for evading the Hara theorem, where sizeable parity-violating contributions can come from the intermediate orbital excitations. Cancellations between pole terms also explain the significant SU(3) flavor symmetry breaking manifested by the experimental data. We also discuss several interesting selection rules arising from either the electromagnetic or the weak interaction vertices. These features suggest nontrivial relations among various hyperon decays.
We study the emission of fragments in central collisions of light and heavily charged systems of 40Ar+45Sc and 84Kr+197Au, respectively, using the Quantum Molecular Dynamics (QMD) model as the primary model. The fragments are identified using an energy based clusterization algorithm, i.e., the Simulated Annealing Clusterization Algorithm (SACA). The charge distributions of intermediate mass fragments [3≤
We use a geometric model for hadron polarization in heavy ion collisions with an emphasis on the rapidity dependence. The model is based on the model of Brodsky, Gunion, and Kuhn, as well as the Bjorken scaling model. We make predictions regarding the rapidity dependence of global
Hawking-Page phase transitions between the thermal anti-de Sitter vacuum and charged black holes surrounded by quintessence are studied in the extended phase space. The quintessence field, with the state parameter
The transonic phenomenon of black hole accretion and the existence of the photon sphere characterize strong gravitational fields near a black hole horizon. Here, we study the spherical accretion flow onto general parametrized spherically symmetric black hole spacetimes. We analyze the accretion process for various perfect fluids, such as the isothermal fluids of ultra-stiff, ultra-relativistic, and sub-relativistic types, and the polytropic fluid. The influences of additional parameters, beyond the Schwarzschild black hole in the framework of general parameterized spherically symmetric black holes, on the flow behavior of the above-mentioned test fluids are studied in detail. In addition, by studying the accretion of the ideal photon gas, we further discuss the correspondence between the sonic radius of the accreting photon gas and the photon sphere for general parameterized spherically symmetric black holes. Possible extensions of our analysis are also discussed.
A flavor-dependent kernel is constructed based on the rainbow-ladder truncation of the Dyson-Schwinger and Bethe-Salpeter equation approach of quantum chromodynamics. The quark-antiquark interaction is composed of a flavor-dependent infrared part and a flavor-independent ultraviolet part. Our model gives a successful and unified description of the light, heavy, and heavy-light ground pseudoscalar and vector mesons. For the first time, our model shows that the infrared-enhanced quark-antiquark interaction is stronger and wider for lighter quarks.
Ultraperipheral collisions (UPCs) of protons and nuclei are important for the study of the photoproduction of vector mesons and exotic states. The photoproduction of vector mesons in the pentaquark resonance channel in p-
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