## 2017 Vol. 41, No. 1

Display Method: |

2017, 41(1): 013001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/1/013001

**Abstract:**

A measurement of the number of J=/ψ events collected with the BESIII detector in 2009 and 2012 is performed using inclusive decays of the J=/ψ. The number of J=/ψ events taken in 2009 is recalculated to be (223:7±1:4)×10

^{6}, which is in good agreement with the previous measurement, but with signi cantly improved precision due to improvements in the BESIII software. The number of J=/ψ events taken in 2012 is determined to be (1086:9±6:0)×10

^{6}. In total, the number of J=/ψ events collected with the BESIII detector is measured to be (1310:6±7:0)×10

^{6}, where the uncertainty is dominated by systematic effects and the statistical uncertainty is negligible.

2017, 41(1): 013002. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/1/013002

**Abstract:**

A new measurement of the reactor antineutrino flux and energy spectrum by the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment is reported. The antineutrinos were generated by six 2.9 GW

_{th}nuclear reactors and detected by eight antineutrino detectors deployed in two near (560 m and 600 m flux-weighted baselines) and one far (1640 m flux-weighted baseline) underground experimental halls. With 621 days of data, more than 1.2 million inverse beta decay (IBD) candidates were detected. The IBD yield in the eight detectors was measured, and the ratio of measured to predicted flux was found to be 0:946±0:020 (0:992±0:021) for the Huber+Mueller (ILL+Vogel) model. A 2.9

*σ*deviation was found in the measured IBD positron energy spectrum compared to the predictions. In particular, an excess of events in the region of 4-6 MeV was found in the measured spectrum, with a local signi cance of 4.4

*σ*. A reactor antineutrino spectrum weighted by the IBD cross section is extracted for model-independent predictions.

2017, 41(1): 013101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/1/013101

**Abstract:**

We study two-body B

_{(c)}→M

_{c}(π,K) and semileptonic B

_{c}→M

_{c}l

^{-}ν

_{l}decays with M

_{c}=(J/ψ,X

_{c}

^{0}), where X

_{c}

^{0}≡X

^{0}(3872) is regarded as the tetraquark state ccuu(dd). With the decay constant

*f*

_{Xc0}=(234±52) MeV determined from the data, we predict that

*B*(B

^{-}→X

_{c}

^{0}π

^{-})=(11.5±5.7)×10

^{-6},

*B*(B

^{0}→X

_{c}

^{0}K

^{0})=(2.1±1.0)×10

^{-4}, and

*B*(B

_{s}

^{0}→X

_{c}

^{0}K

^{0})=(11.4±5.6)×10

^{-6}. With the form factors in QCD models, we calculate that

*B*(B

_{c}

^{-}→X

_{c}

^{0}π

^{-},X

_{c}

^{0}K

^{-})=(6.0±2.6)×10

^{-5}and (4.7±2.0)×10

^{-6}, and

*B*(B

_{c}

^{-}→J/ψμ

^{-}ν

_{μ}, X

_{c}

^{0}μ

^{-}ν

_{μ})=(2.3±0.6)×10

^{-2}and (1.35±0.18)×10

^{-3}, respectively, and extract the ratio of the fragmentation fractions to be

*f*

_{c}/

*f*

_{u}=(6.4±1.9)×10

^{-3}.

2017, 41(1): 013102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/1/013102

**Abstract:**

The electromagnetic form factors and low-energy observables of the deuteron are studied with the help of the light-front approach, where the deuteron is regarded as a weakly bound state of a proton and a neutron. Both the

*S*and

*D*wave interacting vertexes among the deuteron, proton, and neutron are taken into account. Moreover, the regularization functions are also introduced. In our calculations, the vertex and the regularization functions are employed to simulate the momentum distribution inside the deuteron. Our numerical results show that the light-front approach can roughly reproduce the deuteron electromagnetic form factors, like charge

*G*

_{0}, magnetic

*G*

_{1}, and quadrupole

*G*

_{2}, in the low

*Q*

^{2}region. The important effect of the

*D*wave vertex on

*G*

_{2}is also addressed.

2017, 41(1): 013103. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/1/013103

**Abstract:**

For a system of current interest (composed of charm, anticharm and a pair of light quarks), we show trends in phenomenological implications of QCD-based improvements to a simple quark model treatment. We employ a resonating group method to render this difficult four-body problem manageable. We use a quadratic confinement so as to be able to improve beyond the Born approximation. We report the position of the pole corresponding to the D

^{0}D

^{0*}molecule for the best fit of a model parameter to the relevant QCD simulations. We point out the interesting possibility that the pole can be shifted to 3872 MeV by introducing another parameter I

_{0}that changes the strength of the interaction in this one component of

*X*(3872). The revised value of this second parameter can guide future trends in modeling of the full exotic meson

*X*(3872). We also report the changes with I

_{0}in the

*S*-wave spin averaged cross sections for D

^{0}D

^{0*}→ωJ/ψ and D

^{0}D

^{0*}→ρJ/ψ. These cross sections are important regarding the study of QGP (quark gluon plasma).

2017, 41(1): 013104. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/1/013104

**Abstract:**

The linear and non-linear behavior of the top reduced cross section in the LHeC region is considered concerning the boson-gluon fusion (BGF) model for deep inelastic scattering leptoproduction. We show that the non-linear behavior in this region for the tt production is very small. The behavior of the top reduced cross section and the ratio

*R*

^{t}in these processes are also considered.

2017, 41(1): 014001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/1/014001

**Abstract:**

The results of new experimental measurements of p

^{16}O elastic scattering in the energy range of 0.6-1.0 MeV at angles of 40°-160° are given. Phase shift analysis of p

^{16}O elastic scattering was made using these and other experimental data on differential cross sections in excitation functions and angular distributions at energies of up to 2.5 MeV.

2017, 41(1): 014101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/1/014101

**Abstract:**

The production of the hadronic resonances K

^{*0}(892), φ(1020), Σ

^{*}(1385), and Ξ

^{*}(1530) in central AA collisions at √

*s*

_{NN}= 17.3, 200, and 2760 GeV is systematically studied. The direct production of these resonances at system hadronization is described by the quark combination model and the effects of hadron multiple-scattering stage are dealt with by a ultra-relativistic quantum molecular dynamics model (UrQMD). We study the contribution of these two production sources to final observation and compare the final spectra with the available experimental data. The

*p*

_{T}spectra of K

^{*0}(892) calculated directly by quark combination model are explicitly higher than the data at low

*p*

_{T}≤1.5 GeV, and taking into account the modification of rescattering effects, the resulting final spectra well agree with the data at all three collision energies. The rescattering effect on φ(1020) production is weak and including it can slightly improve our description at low

*p*

_{T}on the basis of overall agreement with the data. We also predict the

*p*

_{T}spectra of Σ

^{*}(1385) and Ξ

^{*}(1530), to be tested by the future experimental data.

2017, 41(1): 014102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/1/014102

**Abstract:**

In this paper, based on the two-potential approach combining with the isospin dependent nuclear potential, we systematically compare the

*α*preformation probabilities of odd-

*A*nuclei between nuclear isomeric states and ground states. The results indicate that during the process of

*α*particle preforming, the low lying nuclear isomeric states are similar to ground states. Meanwhile, in the framework of single nucleon energy level structure, we find that for nuclei with nucleon number below the magic numbers, the

*α*preformation probabilities of high-spin states seem to be larger than low ones. For nuclei with nucleon number above the magic numbers, the

*α*preformation probabilities of isomeric states are larger than those of ground states.

2017, 41(1): 014103. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/1/014103

**Abstract:**

The Auto-Importance Sampling (AIS) method is a Monte Carlo variance reduction technique proposed for deep penetration problems, which can significantly improve computational efficiency without pre-calculations for importance distribution. However, the AIS method is only validated with several simple examples, and cannot be used for coupled neutron-photon transport. This paper presents improved algorithms for the AIS method, including particle transport, fictitious particle creation and adjustment, fictitious surface geometry, random number allocation and calculation of the estimated relative error. These improvements allow the AIS method to be applied to complicated deep penetration problems with complex geometry and multiple materials. A Completely coupled Neutron-Photon Auto-Importance Sampling (CNP-AIS) method is proposed to solve the deep penetration problems of coupled neutron-photon transport using the improved algorithms. The NUREG/CR-6115 PWR benchmark was calculated by using the methods of CNP-AIS, geometry splitting with Russian roulette and analog Monte Carlo, respectively. The calculation results of CNP-AIS are in good agreement with those of geometry splitting with Russian roulette and the benchmark solutions. The computational efficiency of CNP-AIS for both neutron and photon is much better than that of geometry splitting with Russian roulette in most cases, and increased by several orders of magnitude compared with that of the analog Monte Carlo.

2017, 41(1): 014104. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/1/014104

**Abstract:**

In this paper, the alpha-cluster state in light alpha-conjugate nuclei is studied and a new suitable local potential model for the

*α*-cluster phase of these nuclei is suggested. Using the generalized Nikiforov-Uvarov (NU) method, the clusterization energy for

^{8}Be,

^{12}C,

^{16}O and

^{20}Ne nuclei is calculated. Based on the obtained results, the clustering phenomenon is more probable at energies among excited levels and it happens neither at ground state nor at excited states of light alpha-conjugate nuclei. It is found that the presented formulation for clustering phenomenon reproduces the results of previous experimental and theoretical attempts for the mentioned nuclei. The consistency of the obtained results with the previous experimental and theoretical predictions indicates the reliability of this formulation for various types of alpha-conjugate nuclei.

2017, 41(1): 015101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/1/015101

**Abstract:**

We discuss a unified model of quark confinement and new cosmic expansion with linear potentials based on a general (

*SU*

_{3})

_{color}×(

*U*

_{1})

_{baryon}symmetry. The phase functions in the usual gauge transformations are generalized to new ‘action integrals’. The general Yang-Mills transformations have group properties and reduce to usual gauge transformations in special cases. Both quarks and ‘gauge bosons’ are permanently confined by linear potentials. In this unified model of particle-cosmology, physics in the largest cosmos and that in the smallest quark system appear to both be dictated by the general Yang-Mills symmetry and characterized by a universal length. The basic force between two baryons is independent of distance. However, the cosmic repulsive force exerted on a baryonic supernova by a uniform sphere of galaxies is proportional to the distance from the center of the sphere. The new general Yang-Mills field may give a field-theoretic explanation of the accelerated cosmic expansion. The prediction could be tested experimentally by measuring the frequency shifts of supernovae at different distances.

2017, 41(1): 015102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/1/015102

**Abstract:**

null

2017, 41(1): 015103. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/1/015103

**Abstract:**

We present a new class of solutions to the Einstein field equations for an anisotropic matter distribution in which the interior space-time obeys the Karmarkar condition. The necessary and sufficient condition required for a spherically symmetric space-time to be of Class One reduces the gravitational behavior of the model to a single metric function. By assuming a physically viable form for the

*g*

_{rr}metric potential we obtain an exact solution of the Einstein field equations which is free from any singularities and satisfies all the physical criteria. We use this solution to predict the masses and radii of well-known compact objects such as Cen X-3, PSR J0348+0432, PSR B0943+10 and XTE J1739-285.

2017, 41(1): 016001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/1/016001

**Abstract:**

The Plastic Scintillator Detector (PSD) is one of the main sub-detectors in the DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) project. It will be operated over a large temperature range from -10 to 30℃, so the temperature effect of the whole detection system should be studied in detail. The temperature dependence of the PSD system is mainly contributed by the three parts: the plastic scintillator bar, the photomultiplier tube (PMT), and the Front End Electronics (FEE). These three parts have been studied in detail and the contribution of each part has been obtained and discussed. The temperature coefficient of the PMT is -0.320(±0.033)%/℃, and the coefficient of the plastic scintillator bar is -0.036(±0.038)%/℃. This result means that after subtracting the FEE pedestal, the variation of the signal amplitude of the PMT-scintillator system due to temperature mainly comes from the PMT, and the plastic scintillator bar is not sensitive to temperature over the operating range. Since the temperature effect cannot be ignored, the temperature dependence of the whole PSD has been also studied and a correction has been made to minimize this effect. The correction result shows that the effect of temperature on the signal amplitude of the PSD system can be suppressed.

2017, 41(1): 016101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/1/016101

**Abstract:**

Reactor neutrino experiments build large-scale detector systems to detect neutrinos. In liquid scintillator, a neutral bound state of a positron and an electron, named positronium, can be formed. The spin triplet state is called ortho-positronium (o-Ps). In this article, an experiment is designed to measure the lifetime of o-Ps, giving a result of 3.1 ns. A PSD parameter based on photon emission time distribution (PETD) was constructed to discriminate e

^{+}/e

^{-}. Finally, the application of e

^{+}/e

^{-}discrimination in the JUNO experiment is shown. It helps suppress

^{8}He/

^{9}Li backgrounds and improves the sensitivity by 0.6 in

*χ*

^{2}analysis with an assumption of

*σ*=1 ns PMT Transit Time Spread, which will bring a smearing effect to the PETD.

2017, 41(1): 016102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/1/016102

**Abstract:**

To overcome the problem of pulse pile-up at high count rates, a digital deconvolution algorithm is used to remove the exponential current tails of NaI(Tl) detectors, so as to obtain a current unit impulse. Then a narrow pulse can be obtained through pulse shaping. The pulse deconvolution technique can thoroughly eliminate the influences of ballistic deficit and improve traditional pulse shaping systems in both pulse throughput and energy resolution. To demonstrate this method, the energy spectrum of a

^{137}Cs radioactive source was measured. When the shaping time constant is 1.5μs, traditional pulse shaping systems yielded a 6.99% energy resolution and 68 kcps count rate, while the new pulse deconvolution technique, used to improve traditional pulse shaping systems, yielded a 6.37% energy resolution and 102 kcps count rate.

2017, 41(1): 016103. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/1/016103

**Abstract:**

It is proposed to upgrade the endcap time-of-flight (ETOF) of the Beijing Spectrometer III (BESIII) with a multi-gap resistive plate chamber (MRPC), aiming at an overall time resolution of about 80 ps. After completing the entire readout electronics system, some experiments, such as heat radiation, radiation hardness and large-current beam tests, have been carried out to confirm the reliability and stability of the readout electronics. An on-detector test of the readout electronics has also been performed with the beam at the BEPCII E3 line. The test results indicate that the readout electronics system fulfills its design requirements.

2017, 41(1): 016104. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/1/016104

**Abstract:**

A BaF

_{2}(Barium Fluoride) detector array is designed to precisely measure the (n, γ) cross section at the CSNS-WNS (white neutron source at China Spallation Neutron Source). It is a 4π solid angle-shaped detector array consisting of 92 BaF

_{2}crystal elements. To discriminate signals from the BaF

_{2}detector, a pulse shape discrimination method is used, supported by a waveform digitization technique. There are 92 channels for digitizing. The precision and synchronization of clock distribution restricts the performance of waveform digitizing. In this paper, a clock prototype for the BaF

_{2}readout electronics at CSNS-WNS is introduced. It is based on the PXIe platform and has a twin-stage tree topology. In the first stage, clock is synchronously distributed from the tree root to each PXIe crate through a coaxial cable over a long distance, while in the second stage, the clock is further distributed to each electronic module through a PXIe dedicated differential star bus. With the help of this topology, each tree node can fan out up to 20 clocks with 3U size. Test results show the clock jitter is less than 20 ps, which meets the requirements of the BaF

_{2}readout electronics. Besides, this clock system has the advantages of high density, simplicity, scalability and cost saving, so it can be useful for other clock distribution applications.

2017, 41(1): 017001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/1/017001

**Abstract:**

This paper presents the design of a compact proton synchrotron, including lattice structure, injection system and extraction system, for radiation applications. The lattice is based on a DBFO cell and shows good properties like small

*β*

_{max}and decent kick arm. Radiation applications require relative strong and continuous beam, so we propose strip injection and resonance extraction for the design. A phase space painting scheme is designed and simulated by ORBIT. The scheme achieves good uniformity in phase space. The extraction system is designed and optimized by multi-particle tracking.

2017, 41(1): 017002. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/1/017002

**Abstract:**

The High Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HIGS) at Duke University is an accelerator-driven Compton gamma-ray source, providing high flux gamma-ray beam from 1 MeV to 100 MeV for photo-nuclear physics research. The HIGS facility operates three accelerators, a linac pre-injector (0.16 GeV), a booster injector (0.16-1.2 GeV), and an electron storage ring (0.24-1.2 GeV). Because of the proximity of the booster injector to the storage ring, the magnetic field of the booster dipoles close to the ring can significantly alter the closed orbit in the storage ring being operated in the low energy region. This type of orbit distortion can be a problem for certain precision experiments which demand a high degree of energy consistency of the gamma-ray beam. This energy consistency can be achieved by maintaining consistent aiming of the gamma-ray beam, and therefore a steady electron beam orbit and angle at the Compton collision point. To overcome the booster leakage field problem, we have developed an orbit compensation scheme. This scheme is developed using two fast orbit correctors and implemented as a feedforward which is operated transparently together with the slow orbit feedback system. In this paper, we will describe the development of this leakage field compensation scheme, and report the measurement results, which demonstrate the effectiveness of the scheme.

2017, 41(1): 017003. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/1/017003

**Abstract:**

The cyclotron cavity presented in this paper is modeled by a feed-forward neural network trained by the authors' optimized back-propagation (BP) algorithm. The training samples were obtained from simulation results that are for a number of defined situations and parameters and were achieved parametrically using MWS CST software; furthermore, the conventional BP algorithm with different hidden-neuron numbers, structures, and other optimal parameters such as learning rate that are applied for our purpose was also used here. The present study shows that an optimized FFN can be used to estimate the cyclotron-model parameters with an acceptable error function. A neural network trained by an optimized algorithm therefore shows a proper approximation and an acceptable ability regarding the modeling of the proposed structure. The cyclotron-cavity parameter-modeling results demonstrate that an FNN that is trained by the optimized algorithm could be a suitable method for the estimation of the design parameters in this case.

2017, 41(1): 018101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/1/018101

**Abstract:**

An infrared oscillator FEL user facility will be built at the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory at in Hefei, China. In this paper, the parameter design of the oscillator FEL is discussed, and some original relevant approaches and expressions are presented. Analytic formulae are used to estimate the optical field gain and saturation power for the preliminary design. By considering both physical and technical constraints, the relation of the deflection parameter

*K*to the undulator period is analyzed. This helps us to determine the ranges of the magnetic pole gap, the electron energy and the radiation wavelength. The relations and design of the optical resonator parameters are analyzed. Using dimensionless quantities, the interdependences between the radii of curvature of the resonator mirror and the various parameters of the optical resonator are clearly demonstrated. The effect of the parallel-plate waveguide is analyzed for the far-infrared oscillator FEL. The condition of the necessity of using a waveguide and the modified filling factor in the case of the waveguide are given, respectively.

2017, 41(1): 018102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/1/018102

**Abstract:**

FELiChEM is a new experimental facility under construction at the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC). Its core device is two free electron laser oscillators generating middle-infrared and far-infrared laser and covering the spectral range of 2.5-200 μm. It will be a dedicated infrared light source aiming at energy chemistry research. We present the brief design of the FEL oscillators, with the emphasis put on the middle-infrared oscillator. Most of the basic parameters are determined and the anticipated performance of the output radiation is given. The first light of FELiChEM is targeted for the end of 2017.

2017, 41(1): 018201. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/1/018201

**Abstract:**

The

^{10}Be/

^{7}Be ratio is a sensitive tracer for the study of atmospheric transport, particularly with regard to stratosphere-troposphere exchange. Measurements with high accuracy and efficiency are crucial to

^{7}Be and

^{10}Be tracer studies. This article describes sample preparation procedures and analytical benchmarks for

^{7}Be and

^{10}Be measurements at the Xi'an Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (Xi'an-AMS) laboratory for the study of rainwater samples. We describe a sample preparation procedure to fabricate beryllium oxide (BeO) AMS targets that includes co-precipitation, anion exchange column separation and purification. We then provide details for the AMS measurement of

^{7}Be and

^{10}Be following the sequence BeO

^{-}→Be

^{2+}→Be

^{4+}in the Xi'an-AMS. The

^{10}Be/

^{7}Be ratio of rainwater collected in Xi'an is shown to be about 1.3 at the time of rainfall. The virtue of the method described here is that both

^{7}Be and

^{10}Be are measured in the same sample, and it is suitable for routine analysis of large numbers of rainwater samples by AMS.

**ISSN** 1674-1137 **CN** 11-5641/O4

Original research articles, Ietters and reviews Covering theory and experiments in the fieids of

- Particle physics
- Nuclear physics
- Particle and nuclear astrophysics
- Cosmology

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