## 1995 Vol. 19, No. S4

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**Abstract:**

Careful analysis has been made of 650,000 EAS events recorded by the Huairou EAS Array. The size spectrum and energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays in the range of 10

^{15}to 5×10

^{16}eV are obtained. The energy spectrum shows a clear and smooth "knee" structure around 3×10

^{15}eV. Except for the smooth bending feature of the "knee," it is consistent with the Akeno spectrum. Under the assumption of the so-called rigidity dependent cut model, by adjusting the bending energy

*E*

_{c}of the primary proton spectrum in the Monte Carlo simulation and comparing with the experimental spectrum, we found that the proper value of

*E*

_{c}is in the energy range of 160 to 240T eV.

**Abstract:**

The update structure and specification of the high-performance detector system is described in this article. It consists of Si multiunit telescopes, IC-f PSD+SPD+CsI(Tl) logarithmic density telescopes, projectilelike fragment TOF telescopes, 3×3 and 6×6 CsI(Tl) scintillator arrays, and Si+CsI(Tl) light particle telescopes. The

*Z*/Δ

*Z*~50, Δ

*E*/

*E*~0.3% for Si telescopes;

*Z*/Δ

*Z*~44.5, Δ

*x*~1.7 mm for logarithmic density telescope; and

*A*/Δ

*A*~86, Z/AZ-48,

*Z*/Δ

*Z*~0.78%, Δ

*E*/

*E*~286 ps for projectilelike fragment TOF telescope focusing with ellipsoidal surface mirror are obtained.

**Abstract:**

High-spin states of

^{197}Bi are populated by bombarding a thick natural Re target with

^{16}O beams of 100 MeV. Using comprehensive γ-γ-

*t*coincidence measurements, three new isomers of

^{197}Bi are confirmed, 11 new γ-transitions are identified, and errors in the existing level scheme are corrected. According to the systematic level structure of odd-A Bi isotopes, the configuration and decay property of the new isomer of

^{197}Bi with

*t*

_{1/2}=19.3±4.9 ns are discussed. The γ-ray angular distributions are also measured. A new level scheme of

^{197}Bi is proposed.

**Abstract:**

The fractal behavior of multiplicity production in 400 GeV/

*c*pp collisions is analyzed using the modified multifractal moments. The generalized dimensions

*D*

_{q},

*q*=2-5, are calculated. A comparison with the results obtained by the method of scaled factorial moments has been made. The results show that the multifractal character is observed. The fractal analysis method proposed by Fujio Takagi has been tested.

**Abstract:**

The high-spin states in

^{128}Ce were populated with the reaction

^{100}Ru(

^{32}S,2p2n)

^{128}Ce at an incident energy of 141 MeV. The lifetime of the 16

^{+}state was measured by using the Doppler shift attenuation method. The corresponding

^{B}(

^{E}2) value is compatible with the rotational value of theoretical calculation.

**Abstract:**

The off-line test setup of the laser ion source built in Tsinghua University is described briefly. The experimental result of laser resonant ionizing Na atoms carried by He gas at the outlet of He-jet are presented. The results indicate that the in-beam ionization of Na atom is viable. Based on these results, vve can design a laser ion source that has high Z selectivity,-high efficiency, low limits of lifetime for isotopes being studied, and is applicable for studying refractory elements.

**Abstract:**

Based on our Monte Carlo calculation model, the frequency distributions of energy deposition in areas of DNA segment and chromatin fiber segment by low-energy electrons are calculated in liquid water. The results are compared with those of OREC code and CPA code. These calculation results provide the theoretical evidence of a soft X ray mechanism, which was suggested by us to explain the physical mechanism of deep biological effects by ultra-low-energy heavy ion implantation.

**Abstract:**

The "irreducible postulation" in group theory is first proved and applied to the classification of quantum states. This postulation assumes that, after considering the whole symmetry of a system, the degeneracy space of any energy level must be an irreducible space of its symmetric group. It also means that the accidental degeneracy does not exist, in fact, if the whole symmetry of a system is found.

**Abstract:**

Using the kinetic equation and considering the effect of the mean field, the transport coefficients of quarks in QGP under the relaxation-time approximation are calculated, and the viscous effect and thermal conductive effect of QGP are discussed.

**Abstract:**

In this paper, the nucleon-nucleon collision cross sections σ

_{nn}in medium in the nonrelativistic energy region are calculated using the Skyrme interaction. The energy and density dependence of nucleon-nucleon collision cross sections in medium and the influences of different Skyrme parameters on the in-medium cross section are discussed. It is found that the in-medium nucleon-nucleon collision cross sections are larger than the free nucleon-nucleon collision cross sections with Pauli corrections at lower densities, and σ

_{nn}in medium above a special energy is larger than the free one at higher densities.

**Abstract:**

Dimensional regularization at finite temperature is applied to calculate accurately the thermodynamic potential of two-loop QED and the overlapping divergences in arbitrary gauge. The calculation indicates that the overlapping divergences cancel each other and the result is gauge-independent.

**Abstract:**

The construction of paired states of a quantum many-particle system is intimately connected with its symmetry. In the cranked shell model of axially symmetric nuclei, three possible forms of paired states can be constructed (i.e., monopole pair, ±Ω pair, and signature pair), which are the simultaneous eigenstates of (

*J*

^{2},

*J*

_{3},

*J*

^{3})and(

*J*

_{3}

^{2},

*R*

_{1}(π)), respectively. When only the pairing interaction is considered (

*ω*=0), the energy spectra obtained are the same for the three types of pairing interactions. When the system is cranked (

*ω*≠0), owing to different behavior of the paired states under rotation, the co variation of the spectra and related properties of the system may be different to some extent.

**Abstract:**

The binding energy and the root-mean-square radii of the matter, proton, and neutron distributions for the doubly magic nucleus

^{100}Sn have been calculated using the relativistic and nonrelativistic mean-held theories. The results from the two mean-held theories are compared and discussed. This is the first microscopic calculation for

^{100}Sn.

**Abstract:**

The Boltzmann approximation of the phase-space distribution function of quarks and pions, adopted by previous authors, is generalized to a complete expression. After calculating the density of particles based on the temperature of the central rapidity region, we study the dilepton production in Bjorken's (1+1) dimensional scaling expansion system and find that the generalized approximate distribution function significantly changes the characteristic dilepton distribution predicted when assuming quark matter formation.

**ISSN** 1674-1137 **CN** 11-5641/O4

Original research articles, Ietters and reviews Covering theory and experiments in the fieids of

- Particle physics
- Nuclear physics
- Particle and nuclear astrophysics
- Cosmology

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