2012 Vol. 36, No. 1

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Particle and field theory
A study of antineutrino spectra from spent nuclear fuel at Daya Bay
ZHOU Bin, RUAN Xi-Chao, NIE Yang-Bo, ZHOU Zu-Ying, AN Feng-Peng, CAO Jun
2012, 36(1): 1-5. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/1/001
The Daya Bay Reactor Antineutrino Experiment is designed to determine the as yet unknown neutrino mixing angle, θ13, by measuring the disappearance of electron antineutrinos from several nuclear reactor cores. The projected sensitivity in sin2(2θ13) of better than 0.01 at a 90% CL should be achieved after three years of data-taking. Antineutrinos emitted from spent nuclear fuel (SNF) distort the soft part of the energy spectrum. In this article, a calculation of the antineutrino spectra from the long-life isotopes in SNF is performed. A non-equilibrium generation of long half-life isotopes during the running time of the reactor is also analyzed. Finally, we show that the antineutrino event rate contribution from SNF, which has been stored in the SNF pool for several years, may be non-negligible.
Possible hidden-charm molecular baryons composed of an anti-charmed meson and a charmed baryon
YANG Zhong-Cheng, SUN Zhi-Feng, HE Jun, LIU Xiang, ZHU Shi-Lin
2012, 36(1): 6-13. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/1/002
Using the one-boson-exchange model, we studied the possible existence of very loosely bound hidden-charm molecular baryons composed of an anti-charmed meson and a charmed baryon. Our numerical results indicate that the ΣcD* and ΣcD states exist, but that the ΛcD and ΛcD* molecular states do not.
The study of B→K(*)l+l- decays in family non-universal Z' models
Wei Chiang, LI Run-Hui
2012, 36(1): 14-24. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/1/003
In a combined investigation of B→K(*)l+l- decays, constraints on the related couplings in family non-universal Z' models are derived. We find that within the allowed parameter space, the recently observed forward-backward asymmetry in the B→K(*)l+l- decay can be explained by flipping the signs of the Wilson coefficients C9eff and C10. With the obtained constraints, we also calculate the branching ratio of the Bs→μ+μ- decay. The upper bound of our prediction is nearly an order of magnitude smaller than the upper bound given by the CDF Collaboration recently.
Study of the heavy molecular states in the quark model with meson exchange interaction
YU Si-Hai, WANG Bao-Kai, CHEN Xiao-Lin, DENG Wei-Zhen
2012, 36(1): 25-30. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/1/004
Some charmonium-like resonances such as X(3872) can be interpreted as possible D(*)D(*) molecular states. Within the quark model, we study the structure of such molecular states and the similar B(*)D(*) molecular states by taking into account the light meson exchange (π, η, ρ, ω and σ) between two light quarks from different mesons.
A quantum secure direct communication protocol based on a five-particle cluster state and classical XOR operation
LI Jian, SONG Dan-Jie, GUO Xiao-Jing, JING Bo
2012, 36(1): 31-36. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/1/005
In order to transmit secure messages, a quantum secure direct communication protocol based on a five-particle cluster state and classical XOR operation is presented. The five-particle cluster state is used to detect eavesdroppers, and the classical XOR operation serving as a one-time-pad is used to ensure the security of the protocol. In the security analysis, the entropy theory method is introduced, and three detection strategies are compared quantitatively by using the constraint between the information that the eavesdroppers can obtain and the interference introduced. If the eavesdroppers intend to obtain all the information, the detection rate of the original ping-pong protocol is 50%; the second protocol, using two particles of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pair as detection particles, is also 50%; while the presented protocol is 89%. Finally, the security of the proposed protocol is discussed, and the analysis results indicate that the protocol in this paper is more secure than the other two.
Nuclear and ion Physics
The fragmentation of 20Ne at 400 A MeV
CHENG Jin-Xia, ZHANG Dong-Hai, YAN Shi-Wei, LI Jun-Sheng, WANG Li-Chun, LI Yan-Jing
2012, 36(1): 37-42. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/1/006
The total charge-changing cross sections and partial cross sections for the production of projectile fragments are measured in the interactions of 400 A MeV 20Ne with aluminum, carbon and polyethylene targets sandwiched with CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors. The measured total charge-changing cross sections are compared with the predictions using the Bradt-Peters semi-empirical formula, and the NUCFRAG2 and PHITS models. It is shown that the measured experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical model prediction and other experimental results, and it can be clearly seen that the partial cross sections for fragment production show obvious odd-even effects.
The neutron halo structure of 17B studied with the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov theory
JI Juan-Xia, LI Jia-Xing, HAN Rui, WANG Jian-Song, HU Qiang
2012, 36(1): 43-47. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/1/007
The properties of neutron-rich boron isotopes are studied in the relativistic continuum Hartree-Bogoliubov theory in coordinate space with NL-SH, PK1 and TM2 effective interactions. Pairing corrections are taken into account by a density dependent force of zero range. The binding energies calculated for these nuclei agree with the experimental data quite well. The neutron-rich nucleus 17B has been predicted to have a two-neutron halo structure in its ground state. The halo structure of 17B is reproduced in a self-consistent way, and this halo is shown to be formed by the valence neutron level 2s1/2.
Theoretical study of the central depression of nuclear charge density distribution by electron scattering
LIU Jian, CHU Yan-Yun, REN Zhong-Zhou, WANG Zai-Jun
2012, 36(1): 48-54. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/1/008
The charge form factors of elastic electron scattering for isotones with N=20 and N=28 are calculated using the phase-shift analysis method, with corresponding charge density distributions from relativistic mean-field theory. The results show that there are sharp variations at the inner parts of charge distributions with the proton number decreasing. The corresponding charge form factors are divided into two groups because of the unique properties of the s-states wave functions, though the proton numbers change uniformly in two isotonic chains. Meanwhile, the shift regularities of the minima are also discussed, and we give a clear relation between the minima of the charge form factors and the corresponding charge radii. This relation is caused by the diffraction effect of the electron. Under this conclusion, we calculate the charge density distributions and the charge form factors of the A=44 nuclei chain. The results are also useful for studying the central depression in light exotic nuclei.
Hadronic rapidity spectra in heavy ion collisions at SPS and AGS energies in a quark combination model
SUN Le-Xue, WANG Rui-Qin, SONG Jun, SHAO Feng-Lan
2012, 36(1): 55-61. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/1/009
The quark combination mechanism of hadron production is applied to nucleus-nucleus collisions at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and the BNL Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). The rapidity spectra of identified hadrons and their spectrum widths are studied. The data of π-, K±, φ, Λ, Λ, Ξ- and Ξ+ at 80 and 40 A GeV, and in particular at 30 and 20 A GeV where the onset of deconfinement is suggested to happen, are consistently described by the quark combination model. However, at AGS 11.6 A GeV below the onset, the π±, K± and Λ spectra cannot be simultaneously explained, indicating the disappearance of the intrinsic correlation of their production in the constituent quark level. The collision-energy dependence of the rapidity spectrum widths of the constituent quarks, and the strangeness of the hot and dense quark matter produced in heavy ion collisions, are obtained and discussed.
Detection Technology and Methods
A data quality monitoring software framework for the BESⅢ experiment
HU Ji-Feng, ZHENG Yang-Heng, SUN Xiao-Dong, JI Xiao-Bin
2012, 36(1): 62-66. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/1/010
Data quality monitoring (DQM) plays an important role in data taking at the BESⅢ experiments. DQM is used to monitor detector status and data quality. A DQM framework (DQMF) has been developed to make it possible to reuse the BESⅢ offline reconstruction system in the online environment. In this framework, the DQMF can also simulate a virtual data taking environment, transfer events to the event display, publish histograms to a histogram presenter in a fixed interval, and dump histograms into a ROOT file. The DQMF has been stably running throughout BESⅢ data taking.
A plastic scintillating fiber position detector in vacuum for the test beam facility at BEPCⅡ-LINAC
KE Zun-Jian, LI Jia-Cai, ZHANG Shao-Ping, AN Guang-Peng, TANG Xing-Hua, YANG Tao
2012, 36(1): 67-70. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/1/011
Two plastic scintillating fiber position detectors for charged particles have been designed, built and installed inside the vacuum tube near two sides of the DM2 deflection magnet on the E3 beam line of the test beam facility at the BEPC-LINAC. A one-dimensional position resolution of sim 1 mm with a sensitive area of 60 mm×60 mm has been obtained for this detector.
A high dynamic range readout unit for a calorimeter
ZHANG Yun-Long, LI Bing, FENG Chang-Qing, LI Xian-Li, WANG Xiao-Lian, XU Zi-Zong, GUO Jian-Hua, CAI Ming-Sheng, HU Yi-Ming, WU Jian, CHANG Jin
2012, 36(1): 71-73. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/1/012
A high dynamic range readout system, consisting of a multi-dynode readout PMT and a VA32 chip, is presented. An LED system is set up to calibrate the relative gains between the dynodes, and the ADC counts per MIPs from dynode 7 are determined under cosmic-ray calibration. A dynamic range from 0.5 MIPs to 1×105 MIPs is achieved.
The design of a five-cell high-current superconducting cavity
LI Yong-Ming, ZHU Feng, QUAN Sheng-Wen, Ali Nassiri, LIU Ke-Xin
2012, 36(1): 74-79. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/1/013
Energy recovery linacs are promising for achieving high average current with superior beam quality. The key component for accelerating such high-current beams is the superconducting radio-frequency cavity. The design of a 1.3 GHz five-cell high-current superconducting cavity has been carried out under cooperation between Peking University and the Argonne National Laboratory. The radio-frequency properties, damping of the higher order modes, multipacting and mechanical features of this cavity have been discussed and the final design is presented.
The beam-based calibration of an X-ray pinhole camera at SSRF
LENG Yong-Bin, HUANG Guo-Qing, ZHANG Man-Zhou, CHEN Zhi-Chu, CHEN Jie, YE Kai-Rong
2012, 36(1): 80-83. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/1/014
A pinhole camera for imaging X-ray synchrotron radiation from a dipole magnet is now in operation at the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) storage ring. The electron beam size is derived by unfolding the radiation image and the point spread function (PSF) with deconvolution techniques. The performance of the pinhole is determined by the accuracy of the PSF measurement. This article will focus on a beam-based calibration scheme to measure the PSF system by varying the beam images with different quadrupole settings and fitting them with the corresponding theoretical beam sizes. Applying this method at SSRF, the PSF value of the pinhole is revised from 37 to 44 μm. The deviation in beam size between the theoretical value and the measured value is minimized to 4% after calibration. This optimization allows us to observe the horizontal disturbance due to injection down to as small as 0.5 μm.
A particle-in-cell mode beam dynamics simulation of medium energy beam transport for the SSC-Linac
XIAO Chen, HE Yuan, YUAN You-Jin, LU Yuan-Rong, LIU Yong, WANG Zhi-Jun, DU Xiao-Nan, YAO Qing-Gao, LIU Ge, XU Meng-Xin, HE Shou-Bo, XIA Jia-Wen
2012, 36(1): 84-90. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/1/015
A new linear accelerator system, called the SSC-Linac injector, is being designed at HIRFL (the heavy ion research facility of Lanzhou). As part of the SSC-Linac, the medium energy beam transport (MEBT) consists of seven magnetic quadrupoles, a re-buncher and a diagnose box. The total length of this segment is about 1.75 m. The beam dynamics simulation in MEBT has been studied using the TRACK 3D particle-in-cell code, and the simulation result shows that the beam accelerated from the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) matches well with the acceptance of the following drift tube linac (DTL) in both the transverse and longitudinal phase spaces, and that most of the particles can be captured by the final sector focusing cyclotron for further acceleration. The longitudinal emittance of the RFQ and the longitudinal acceptance of the DTL was calculated in detail, and a multi-particle beam dynamics simulation from the ion source to the end of the DTL was done to verify the original design.
The magnet design for the HLS storage ring upgrade project
ZHANG Hao, LI Wei-Min, FENG Guang-Yao, WANG Lin, ZHANG Shan-Cai, LI Wei, LIANG Jun-Jun
2012, 36(1): 91-95. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/1/016
In order to improve the performance of the Hefei Light Source (HLS), in particular to get higher brilliance synchrotron radiation and increase the number of straight section insertion devices, an upgrade project called HLSII will be launched soon. The storage ring lattice, which has a double bend achromatic structure with four periods, comprises eight dipoles, 32 quadrupoles and 32 combined function sextupoles. The design and analysis of the magnets are shown in this paper, along with the optimization of the multipurpose combined function magnet, which consists of three magnets: skew quadrupole, horizontal dipole and vertical dipole, with the main sextupole magnet. This type of magnet is the first one that has been designed and used in China. The mechanical design and fabrication procedures for the magnets are also presented.
The radio-frequency design of an iris-type coupler for the CPHS radio-frequency quadrupole
XIONG Zheng-Feng, ZHENG Shu-Xin, XING Qing-Zi, GUAN Xia-Ling
2012, 36(1): 96-100. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/1/017
The Compact Pulsed Hadron Source (CPHS) project is a university-based proton accelerator platform (13 MeV, 16 kW, 50 mA peak current, 0.5 ms pulse width at 50 Hz) for multi-disciplinary neutron and proton applications. The CPHS linac consists of a 3 MeV radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac and a 13 MeV drift tube linac (DTL). Both the RFQ and DTL share a 325 MHz, 2.1 MW klystron source. A single iris-type radio-frequency (RF) coupler is used to feed 537 kW of RF power to the RFQ cavity. Three-dimensional electromagnetic models of the ridge-loaded tapered waveguide (RLWG) and the coupler-cavity system are presented, and the design process and results of the RLWG and iris plate are described in detail.