2014 Vol. 38, No. 2
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In this paper we have solved the two-body spinless-Salpeter (SS) equation under the Coulomb and exponential type potentials. We have applied an approximation for the centrifugal term in our calculations. The energy eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenfunctions are reported by using the Laplace transform approach for any n, l states.
The simulation is performed for the monitors of beam direction and beam position for p-p elastic scattering. We set several variables to simulate the monitors of incident beam condition changes: beam positions at the quadrupole magnet and target in beam line polarimeter (BLP2), distance between quadrupole magnet and target, size of plastic scintillators, distance between the target in BLP2 and the centers of plastic scintillators, and beam polarization. Through the rotation of the coordinate system, the distributions of scattered and recoiled protons in the laboratory system were obtained. By analyzing the count yields in plastic scintillators at different beam positions, we found that the beam incident angular change (0.35°) could be detected when the asymmetry of geometries of left and right scintillators in BLP2 was changed by 6%. Therefore, the scattering angle measured in the experiment can be tracked by these monitors.
186Pt was tested in the framework of IBM-1 and the X(3) model. The results show that 186Pt is located close to the shape phase transition point, but the B(E2) values little agree with the X(3) model. The shape evolution in the yrast states of 186Pt is also discussed in detail. TRS calculation exhibits a flat bottomed potential at low spin states, but a relatively deep minimum at high spin states. It suggests that a shape evolution from vibrational mode to rotational mode happens in 186Pt. The result is in agreement with the E-GOS calculation.
The neutron-rich even-even nuclei 26-40Mg, 28-46Si, 30-48S, and 32-56Ar are calculated with the RMF model and the phase-shift electron scattering method. Results show that level inversion of the 2s1/2 and 1d3/2 proton states may occur for the magnesium, silicon, sulphur, and argon isotopes with more neutrons away from the stability line. Calculations show that the variation of the central charge densities for 30-48S, and 32-56Ar are very sensitive to the 2s1/2 and 1d3/2 proton state level inversion, and the level inversion can lead to a large measurable central charge depletion to the charge density distributions for the neutron-rich isotopes. Calculations also show that the charge density differences between the isotopes with and without central charge depletion can reveal not only the level inversion of the 2s1/2 and 1d3/2 proton states but also the behavior of the proton wave functions of both states. The results can provide references for the possible study of the nuclear level inversion and nuclear bubble phenomenon with electron scattering off short-lived nuclei at RIKEN or/and GSI in the future. In addition, direct nuclear reaction 44S(n, d)43P or 44S(3H, α)43P might also be a possible way to study the 2s1/2 and 1d3/2 proton state level inversion.
This work studies the systematic reduced transition probabilities B(E2)↓, intrinsic quadrupole moments and deformation parameters of Pd isotopes with even neutrons from N=62 to 66. The downward reduced transition probabilities B(E2)↓ from gamma transition 8+ to 6+, 6+ to 4+, 4+ to 2+ and 2+ to 0+ states of even-even 108-112Pd isotopes were calculated by the Interacting Boson Model (IBM-1) and compared with the available previous experimental results. The ratio of the excitation energies of the rst 4+ and the rst 2+ excited states, R4/2, is also studied for the classi cation of symmetry of these nuclei. Furthermore we have studied systematically the transition rate R=B(E2: L+→(L-2)+)=B(E2:2+→0+) of some of the low-lying quadrupole collective states in comparison with the available experimental data. The associated quadrupole moments and deformation parameters have been calculated. The results of this calculation are in good agreement with the corresponding available experimental data. The 108-112Pd isotopes show the O(6) symmetry.
Relativistic corrections to the reaction kinematic parameters were made for elastic scattering of 6Li, 12C and 40Ar from 40Ca, 90Zr and 208Pb targets at incident energies between 20 and 100 MeV/nucleon. The results of optical model calculations show that the effects of such corrections are important when describing the angular distributions of elastic scattering cross sections for heavy ion scattering at incident energies as low as around 40 MeV/nucleon. The effects on the total reaction cross sections on the other hand, were found to be small within the energy range studied when the optical model potential is fixed.
In order to further explore the effects of non-Gaussian smeared mass distribution on the thermodynamical properties of noncommutative black holes, we consider noncommutative black holes based on Maxwell-Boltzmann smeared mass distribution in (2+1)-dimensional spacetime. The thermodynamical properties of the black holes are investigated, including Hawking temperature, heat capacity, entropy and free energy. We find that multiple black holes with the same temperature do not exist, while there exists a possible decay of the noncommutative black hole based on Maxwell-Boltzmann smeared mass distribution into the rotating (commutative) BTZ black hole.
A prototype array for the LHAASO-KM2A, which consists of 42 detector units and fully overlaps the ARGO-YBJ experiment, was set up at the Yangbajing cosmic ray observatory and has been in stable operation since Octoter 2010. The resulting performances of the KM2A electromagnetic particle detector prototypes fully meet the design requirements. Through hybrid observation of cosmic ray showers with the ARGO-YBJ experiment, the performances and long-term stability of the prototype array are tested and the results are consistent with expectation. The cosmic ray moon shadow observed by the prototype array is also presented.
We designed and implemented a signal generator that can simulate the output of the NaI(Tl)/CsI(Na) detectors' pre-amplifier onboard the Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT). Using the development of the FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) with VHDL language and adding a random constituent, we have finally produced the double exponential random pulse signal generator. The statistical distribution of the signal amplitude is programmable. The occurrence time intervals of the adjacent signals contain negative exponential distribution statistically.
LHAASO-WCDA is a large ground-based water Cherenkov detector array planned to be built at Shangri-La, Yunnan Province, China. As a major component of the LHAASO project, the main purpose of LHAASO-WCDA is to survey the northern sky for very-high-energy (above 100 GeV) gamma ray sources and measure the spectrum. To gain full knowledge of the water Cherenkov technique and to investigate the engineering issues, a 9-cell detector array has been built at the Yang-Ba-Jing site, neighboring the ARGO-YBJ experiment. With the array, charge calibration methods for both low and high ranges of the PMT readout are studied, whose result shows that a precision at several percentages can be reached, which can satisfy the requirement of the detector array. During the long term operation, the charge calibration stability and environmental affection are studied; in this paper, the results are discussed. These calibration methods are proposed to be applied in the future LHAASO-WCDA project.
A flow gas low-pressure multi-wire proportional chamber (LPMWPC) with an active area of 180 mm·80 mm has been developed for the flying time test of the recoil nuclei on super heavy nuclear experiments. The LPMWPC detector can be operated in single as well as double step operational modes. In the case of double step operational mode with a high gas amplification factor, signals from α-particles reside well above the electronic noise. The gas leakage rate and time resolution obtained from the α 239Pu source are shown and discussed at the condition of 3 mbar Isobutane gas. It was shown that the time resolution was better than 2.9 ns at the best work condition, and the detecting efficiency was larger than 98% at the low energy α particles. So the LPMWPC is fit to measure the flying time in the super heavy nuclear fragments experiment.
Based on real data, a new parameterized model of the main drift chamber response is proposed. In this model, we tune the ratio of good hits and the residual distribution separately. By data quality checking, the difference between simulation and data in track reconstruction e ciency reduces from 1% to 0.5% averagely for the pion in J/Ψ→π+π-π0, and the momentum resolution agreement improves signi cantly for the proton in J/Ψ→pp.
Power couplers, used in China-ADS proton linac injector Ⅰ, are required to transfer 6 kW RF power to the superconducting Spoke cavities. At present, first the two couplers of a coaxial design have been fabricated, which accomplished a high power test at IHEP. The test results indicated that couplers of this design are qualified to deliver 10 kW RF power in continuous travelling wave mode. This paper describes the coupler's room temperature test procedures and results and discusses the original high power test, which was terminated due to serious out-gassing and after some modifications. In the final test, the couplers smoothly exceeded the design power level.
In the R&D of the CSNS Drift Tube Linac (DTL), the first unit tank with 28 drift tubes has been developed. The axial accelerating field is ramped from 2.2 MV/m to 3.1 MV/m in this tank. The required field flatness is less than ±2% with the standard deviation of 1% for the beam dynamics; the field stability should be less than 1% for machine stable operation. After successful alignment, RF tuning was carried out focusing on the field profile measurement. Four slug tuners and eleven post couplers were applied in this procedure. The ramped field and required stability had been achieved by fine adjustment of the slug tuners and post couplers. In this paper, the preliminary tuning results are presented and discussed.
Increasing the peak brightness is beneficial to various applications of the Thomson scattering X-ray source. A higher peak brightness of the scattered X-ray pulse demands a shorter scattering electron beam realized by beam compression in the electron beam-line. In this article, we study the possibility of compressing the electron beam in a typical S-band normal conducting photo-injector via ballistic bunching, through just adding a short RF linac section right behind the RF gun, so as to improve the peak brightness of the scattered x-ray pulse. Numerical optimization by ASTRA demonstrates that the peak current can increase from 50 A to > 300 A for a 500 pC, 10 ps FWHM electron pulse, while normalized transverse RMS emittance and RMS energy spread increases very little. Correspondingly, the peak brightness of the Thomson scattering X-ray source is estimated to increase about three times.
The China ADS (C-ADS) project proposes to build a 1000 MW Accelerator Driven sub-critical System around 2032. The accelerator will work in CW mode with 10 mA in beam current and 1.5 GeV in final beam energy. The linac is composed of two major sections: the injector section and the main linac section. There are two different schemes for the injector section. The Injector-Ⅰ scheme is based on a 325 MHz RFQ and superconducting spoke cavities of the same RF frequency and the Injector-Ⅱ scheme is based on a 162.5 MHz RFQ and superconducting HWR cavities of the same frequency. The main linac design will be different for different injector choices. The two different designs for the main linac have been studied according to the beam characteristics from the different injector schemes.
Dalian Coherent Light Source will use a 300 MeV LINAC to produce fully coherent photon pulses in the wavelength range between 150-50 nm by high gain harmonic generation free electron laser (FEL) scheme. To generate stable FEL pulses, a stringent tolerance budget is required for the LINAC output parameters, such as the mean beam energy stability, electron bunch arrival time jitter, peak current variation and the transverse beam position offset. In order to provide guidance for the design of the Dalian Coherent Light Source, in this paper, the sensitivity of FEL pulse energy fluctuation to various error sources of the electron bunch was performed using intensive start-to-end FEL simulations.
For the research of CCD neutron radiography, a neutron collimator was designed based on the exit of thermal neutron of the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) reactor. Based on the Geant4 simulations, the preliminary choice of the size of the collimator was determined. The materials were selected according to the literature data. Then, a collimator was constructed and tested on site. The results of experiment and simulation show that the thermal neutron flux at the end of the neutron collimator is greater than 1.0·106 n/cm2/s, the maximum collimation ratio (L/D) is 58, the Cd-ratio(Mn) is 160 and the diameter of collimator end is 10 cm. This neutron collimator is considered to be applicable for neutron radiography.
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