2016 Vol. 40, No. 5

Particles and Fields
Study of beamstrahlung effects at CEPC
Qing-Lei Xiu, Hong-Bo Zhu, Teng Yue, Xin-Chou Lou
2016, 40(5): 053001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/5/053001
The discovery of a 125 GeV Higgs boson at the LHC marked a breakthrough in particle physics. The relative lightness of the new particle has inspired consideration of a high-luminosity Circular Electron Positron Collider(CEPC) as a Higgs Factory to study the particle's properties in an extremely clean environment. Given the high luminosity and high energy of the CEPC, beamstrahlung is one of the most important sources of beam-induced background that might degrade the detector performance. It can introduce even more backgrounds to the detector through the consequent electron-positron pair production and hadronic event generation. In this paper, beamstrahlung-induced backgrounds are estimated with both analytical methods and Monte Carlo simulation. Hit density due to detector backgrounds at the first vertex detector layer is found to be~0.2 hits/cm2 per bunch crossing, resulting in a low detector occupancy below 0.5%. Non-ionizing energy loss(NIEL) and total ionizing dose(TID), representing the radiation damage effects, are estimated to be~1011 1 MeV neq/cm2/yr and~300 kRad/yr, respectively.
Implications of equalities among the elements of CKM and PMNS matrices
Hong-Wei Ke, Song-Xue Zhao, Xue-Qian Li
2016, 40(5): 053101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/5/053101
Investigating the CKM matrix in different parameterization schemes, it is noticed that those schemes can be divided into a few groups where the sine values of the CP phase for each group are approximately equal i.e. there exist several relations among the CP phases. Using those relations, several approximate equalities among the elements of CKM matrix are established. The case can also be generalized to the PMNS matrix for the lepton sector. Assuming them to be exact, there are infinite numbers of solutions and by choosing special values for the free parameters in those solutions, several textures presented in the literature are obtained. Other authors have derived several mixing textures by using presumed symmetries; amazingly, some, though not all, of their forms are the same as those we obtained. This hints at the existence of a hidden symmetry which is broken in the practical world. Nature makes its own selection of the underlying symmetry and the way to break it, while we just guess what it is.
Decay rates of charmonia within a quark-antiquark confining potential
Smruti Patel, P. C. Vinodkumar, Shashank Bhatnagar
2016, 40(5): 053102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/5/053102
In this work, we investigate the spectroscopy and decay rates of charmonia within the framework of the non-relativistic Schrödinger equation by employing an approximate inter quark-antiquark potential. The spin hyperfine, spin-orbit and tensor components of the one gluon exchange interaction are employed to compute the spectroscopy of the excited S states and a few low-lying P and D waves. The resultant wave functions at zero inter quark separation as well as some finite separations are employed to predict the di-gamma, di-leptonic and di-gluon decay rates of charmonia states using the conventional Van Royen-Weisskopf formula. The di-gamma and di-leptonic decay widths are also computed by incorporating the relativistic corrections of order ν4 within the NRQCD formalism. We have observed that the NRQCD predictions with their matrix elements computed at finite radial separation yield results which are found to be in better agreement with experimental values for both di-gamma and di-leptonic decays. The same scenario is seen in the case when di-gamma and di-leptonic decay widths are computed with the Van Royen-Weisskopf formula. It is also observed that the di-gluon decay width with the inclusion of binding energy effects are in better agreement with the experimental data available for 1S-2S and 1P. The di-gluon decay width of 3S and 2P waves waves are also predicted. Thus, the present study of decay rates clearly indicates the importance of binding energy effects.
Nuclear Physics
Role of projectile breakup effects and intrinsic degrees of freedom on fusion dynamics
Manjeet Singh Gautam
2016, 40(5): 054101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/5/054101
This article analyzed the fusion dynamics of loosely bound and stable projectiles with Zr-target isotopes within the context of the coupled channel approach and the energy-dependent Woods-Saxon potential model(EDWSP model). In the case of the 28Si+90Zr reaction, the coupling to the inelastic surface excitations results in an adequate description of the observed fusion dynamics while in case of the 28Si+94Zr reaction, the coupling to collective surface vibrational states as well as the neutron(multi-neutron) transfer channel is necessary in the coupled channel calculations to reproduce the below-barrier fusion data. However, the EDWSP model calculation provides an accurate explanation of the fusion data of 28Si+90, 94Zr reactions in the domain of the Coulomb barrier. In the fusion of the 6Li+90Zr reaction, the inclusion of the nuclear structure degrees of freedom recovers the observed sub-barrier fusion enhancement but results in suppression of the above barrier fusion data by 34% with respect to the coupled channel calculations. Using EDWSP model calculations, this suppression factor is reduced by 14% and consequently, the above-barrier fusion data of 6Li+90Zr reaction is hindered by 20% with reference to the EDWSP model calculations. Such fusion hindrance at above-barrier energies can be correlated with the breakup of the projectile(6Li) before reaching the fusion barrier, as a consequence of low binding energy.
Global α-decay study based on the mass table of the relativistic continuum Hartree-Bogoliubov theory
Lin-Feng Zhang, Xue-Wei Xia
2016, 40(5): 054102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/5/054102
The α-decay energies(Qα) are systematically investigated with the nuclear masses for 10 ≤ Z ≤ 120 isotopes obtained by the relativistic continuum Hartree-Bogoliubov(RCHB) theory with the covariant density functional PC-PK1, and compared with available experimental values. It is found that the α-decay energies deduced from the RCHB results present a similar pattern to those from available experiments. Owing to the large predicted Qα values(≥ 4 MeV), many undiscovered heavy nuclei in the proton-rich side and super-heavy nuclei may have large possibilities for α-decay. The influence of nuclear shell structure on α-decay energies is also analysed.
Detectors, Related Electronics and Experimental Methods
A large area plastic scintillation detector with 4-corner-readout
Shu-Wen Tang, Yu-Hong Yu, Yong Zhou, Zhi-Yu Sun, Xue-Heng Zhang, Shi-Tao Wang, Ke Yue, Long-Xiang Liu, Fang Fang, Duo Yan, Yu Sun, Zhao-Min Wang
2016, 40(5): 056001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/5/056001
A 760 mm×760 mm×30 mm plastic scintillation detector viewed by photomultiplier tubes(PMTs) from four corners has been developed, and the detector has been tested with cosmic rays and γ rays. A position-independent effective time Teff has been found, indicating this detector can be used as a TOF detector. The hit position can also be reconstructed by the time from the four corners. A TOF resolution of 236 ps and a position resolution of 48 mm have been achieved, and the detection efficiency has also been investigated.
Online aging study of a high rate MRPC
Jie Wang, Yi Wang, Bo Xie, Pengfei Lv, Fuyue Wang, Baohong Guo, Dong Han, Yuanjing Li
2016, 40(5): 056002. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/5/056002
With the constant increase of accelerator luminosity, the rate requirements of MRPC detectors have become very important, and the aging characteristics of the detector have to be studied meticulously. An online aging test system has been set up in our lab, and in this paper the setup of the system is described and the performance stability of a high-rate MRPC studied over a long running time under a high luminosity environment. The high rate MRPC was irradiated by X-rays for 36 days and the accumulated charge density reached 0.1 C/cm2. No obvious performance degradation was observed for the detector.
Onboard calibration circuit for the DAMPE BGO calorimeter front-end electronics
De-Liang Zhang, Chang-Qing Feng, Jun-Bin Zhang, Qi Wang, Si-Yuan Ma, Zhong-Tao Shen, Di Jiang, Shan-Shan Gao, Yun-Long Zhang, Jian-Hua Guo, Shu-Bin Liu, Qi An
2016, 40(5): 056101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/5/056101
DAMPE(DArk Matter Particle Explorer) is a scientific satellite which is mainly aimed at indirectly searching for dark matter in space. One critical sub-detector of the DAMPE payload is the BGO(Bismuth Germanium Oxide) Calorimeter, which contains 1848 PMT(photomultiplier tube) dynodes and 16 FEE(Front-End Electronics) boards. VA160 and VATA160, two 32-channel low power ASICs(Application Specific Integrated Circuits), are adopted as the key components on the FEEs to perform charge measurement for the PMT signals. In order to monitor the parameter drift which may be caused by temperature variation, aging, or other environmental factors, an onboard calibration circuit is designed for the VA160 and VATA160 ASICs. It is mainly composed of a 12-bit DAC(Digital to Analog Converter), an operational amplifier and an analog switch. Test results showed that a dynamic range of 0——30 pC with a precision of 5 fC(Root Meam Square, RMS) was achieved, which covers the VA160's input range. It can be used to compensate for the temperature drift and test the trigger function of the FEEs. The calibration circuit has been implemented for the front-end electronics of the BGO Calorimeter and verified by all the environmental tests for both Qualification Model and Flight Model of DAMPE. The DAMPE satellite will be launched at the end of 2015 and the calibration circuit will operate periodically in space.
A novel method of encoded multiplexing readout for micro-pattern gas detectors
Bin-Xiang Qi, Shu-Bin Liu, Heng Ji, Zhong-Tao Shen, Si-Yuan Ma, Hong-Bang Liu, Wen-Qian Huang, Qi An
2016, 40(5): 056102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/5/056102
The requirement of a large number of electronic channels poses a big challenge to the further applications of Micro-pattern Gas Detectors(MPGDs). By using the redundancy that at least two neighboring strips record the signal of a particle, a novel method of encoded multiplexing readout for MPGDs is presented in this paper. The method offers a feasible and easily-extensible way of encoding and decoding, and can significantly reduce the number of readout channels. A verification test was carried out on a 5 cm×5 cm Thick Gas Electron Multiplier(THGEM) detector using a 8 keV Cu X-ray source with 100μ slit, where 166 strips were read out by 21 encoded readout channels. The test results show good linearity in its position response, and the spatial resolution root-mean-square(RMS) of the test system is about 260μ. This method has potential to build large area detectors and can be easily adapted to other detectors like MPGDs.
Test of the notch technique for determining the radial sensitivity of the optical model potential
Lei Yang, Cheng-Jian Lin, Hui-Ming Jia, Xin-Xing Xu, Nan-Ru Ma, Li-Jie Sun, Feng Yang, Huan-Qiao Zhang, Zu-Hua Liu, Dong-Xi Wang
2016, 40(5): 056201. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/5/056201
Detailed investigations on the notch technique are performed on ideal data generated by the optical model potential parameters extracted from the 16O+208Pb system at the laboratory energy of 129.5 MeV, to study the sensitivities of this technique to the model parameters as well as the experimental data. It is found that for the perturbation parameters, a sufficiently large reduced fraction and an appropriate small perturbation width are necessary to determine the accurate radial sensitivity; while for the potential parameters, almost no dependence was observed. For the experimental measurements, the number of data points has little influence for heavy target systems, and the relative inner information of the nuclear potential can be derived when the measurement is extended to a lower cross section.
Neutron time-of-flight spectroscopy measurement using a waveform digitizer
Long-Xiang Liu, Hong-Wei Wang, Yu-Gang Ma, Xi-Guang Cao, Xiang-Zhou Cai, Jin-Gen Chen, Gui-Lin Zhang, Jian-Long Han, Guo-Qiang Zhang, Ji-Feng Hu, Xiao-He Wang
2016, 40(5): 056202. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/5/056202
The photoneutron source(PNS, phase 1), an electron linear accelerator(linac)-based pulsed neutron facility that uses the time-of-flight(TOF) technique, was constructed for the acquisition of nuclear data from the Thorium Molten Salt Reactor(TMSR) at the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics(SINAP). The neutron detector signal used for TOF calculation, with information on the pulse arrival time, pulse shape, and pulse height, was recorded by using a waveform digitizer(WFD). By using the pulse height and pulse-shape discrimination(PSD) analysis to identify neutrons and γ-rays, the neutron TOF spectrum was obtained by employing a simple electronic design, and a new WFD-based DAQ system was developed and tested in this commissioning experiment. The DAQ system developed is characterized by a very high efficiency with respect to millisecond neutron TOF spectroscopy.
Influence of experimental conditions on the spectroscopy investigation of 14Be by Coulomb breakup reaction
Yu-Shou Song, Ying-Wei Hou, Li-Yuan Hu, Hui-Lan Liu, Hong-Yi Wu
2016, 40(5): 056203. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/5/056203
The two-body(core+2n) cluster structure was implemented to describe the two-neutron halo nucleus 14Be, where the core 12Be was assumed inert and at a ground state and the dineutron was assumed at a pure 2S0 state. Based on such a structure the three-body continuum-discretized coupled-channel(CDCC) calculation was successfully used to deal with the 14Be breakup reactions of 14Be+Pb at 35 MeV/u. Consequently, we modeled the kinematically complete measurement experiment of this reaction with the help of Geant4. With the simulation data the relative energy spectrum was constructed by the invariant mass method and B(E1) spectrum was extracted using the virtual photon model. The influence of the target thickness and detector performance on the energy spectroscopy was investigated.
Cavity and HOM coupler design for CEPC
Hong-Juan Zheng, Jie Gao, Zhen-Chao Liu
2016, 40(5): 057001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/5/057001
In this paper we will show a cavity and higher order mode(HOM) coupler designing scheme for the Circular Electron-Positron Collider(CEPC) main ring. The cavity radio frequency(RF) design parameters are shown in this paper. The HOM power is calculated based on the beam parameters in the Preliminary Conceptual Design Report(Pre-CDR). The damping results of the higher order modes(HOMs) and same order modes(SOMs) show that they reach the damping requirements for beam stability.
Improved step-by-step chromaticity compensation method for chromatic sextupole optimization
Gang-Wen Liu, Zheng-He Bai, Qi-Ka Jia, Wei-Min Li, Lin Wang
2016, 40(5): 057002. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/5/057002
The step-by-step chromaticity compensation method for chromatic sextupole optimization and dynamic aperture increase was proposed by E. Levichev and P. Piminov(E. Levichev and P. Piminov, 2006). Although this method can be used to enlarge the dynamic aperture of a storage ring, it has some drawbacks. In this paper, we combined this method with evolutionary computation algorithms, and proposed an improved version of this method. In the improved method, the drawbacks are avoided, and thus better optimization results can be obtained.
Numerical simulation and design of a thermionic electron gun
Nijatie A
2016, 40(5): 057003. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/5/057003
This paper reports the simulation of an electron gun. The effects on the beam quality of some parameters on the beam quality were studied and optimal choices were identified. It gives numerical beam qualities for a common electrostatic triode gun, and the dependencies on design parameters such as electrode geometries and bias voltages to these electrodes are shown. An electron beam of diameter 5 mm with energy of 5 keV was assumed for the simulation process. Some design parameters were identified as variable parameters in the presence of space charge. These parameters are the inclination angle of emission electrode, the applied voltage to the focusing electrode, the gap width between the emission electrode and the focusing electrode and the diameter of the focusing electrode. The triode extraction system is designed and optimized by using CST software(for Particle Beam Simulations). The physical design of the extraction system is given in this paper. From the simulation results, it is concluded that the inclination angle of the emission electrode is optimized at 22.5°, the applied voltage to the focusing electrode was optimized and found to be Vfoc=-600 V, the optimal separation distance(gap between emission electrode and focusing electrode) is 4 mm, and the optimal diameter of the emission electrode is 14 mm. Initial results for these efforts aimed at emittance improvement are also be given.
A new muon-pion collection and transport system design using superconducting solenoids based on CSNS
Ran Xiao, Yan-Fen Liu, Wen-Zhen Xu, Xiao-Jie Ni, Zi-Wen Pan, Bang-Jiao Ye
2016, 40(5): 057004. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/5/057004
A new muon and pion capture system is proposed for the China Spallation Neutron Source(CSNS), currently under construction. Using about 4% of the pulsed proton beam(1.6 GeV, 4 kW and 1 Hz) of CSNS to bombard a cylindrical graphite target inside a superconducting solenoid, both surface muons and pions can be acquired. The acceptance of this novel capture system-a graphite target wrapped up by a superconducting solenoid-is larger than the normal muon beam lines using quadrupoles at one side of the separated muon target. The muon and pion production at different capture magnetic fields was calculated using Geant4. The bending angle of the capture solenoid with respect to the proton beam was also optimized in simulation to achieve more muons and pions. Based on the layout of the muon experimental area reserved at the CSNS project, a preliminary muon beam line was designed with multi-purpose muon spin rotation areas(surface, decay and low-energy muons). Finally, high-flux surface muons(108/s) and decay muons(109/s) simulated by G4beamline will be available at the end of the decay solenoid based on the first phase of CSNS. This collection and transport system will be a very effective beam line at a proton current of 2.5μupA.
Study on transient beam loading compensation for China ADS proton linac injector Ⅱ
Zheng Gao, Yuan He, Xian-Wu Wang, Wei Chang, Rui-Feng Zhang, Zheng-Long Zhu, Sheng-Hu Zhang, Qi Chen, Tom Powers
2016, 40(5): 057005. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/5/057005
Significant transient beam loading effects were observed during beam commissioning tests of prototype Ⅱ of the injector for the accelerator driven sub-critical(ADS) system, which took place at the Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, between October and December 2014. During these tests experiments were performed with continuous wave(CW) operation of the cavities with pulsed beam current, and the system was configured to make use of a prototype digital low level radio frequency(LLRF) controller. The system was originally operated in pulsed mode with a simple proportional plus integral and deviation(PID) feedback control algorithm, which was not able to maintain the desired gradient regulation during pulsed 10 mA beam operations. A unique simple transient beam loading compensation method which made use of a combination of proportional and integral(PI) feedback and feedforward control algorithm was implemented in order to significantly reduce the beam induced transient effect in the cavity gradients. The superconducting cavity field variation was reduced to less than 1.7% after turning on this control algorithm. The design and experimental results of this system are presented in this paper.
Synchrotron Radiation, Free Electron Lasers, Applications of Nuclear Technology, etc
High resolution image reconstruction method for a double-plane PET system with changeable spacing
Xiao-Yue Gu, Wei Zhou, Lin Li, Long Wei, Peng-Fei Yin, Lei-Min Shang, Ming-Kai Yun, Zhen-Rui Lu, Xian-Chao Huang
2016, 40(5): 058201. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/5/058201
Breast-dedicated positron emission tomography(PET) imaging techniques have been developed in recent years. Their capacities to detect millimeter-sized breast tumors have been the subject of many studies. Some of them have been confirmed with good results in clinical applications. With regard to biopsy application, a double-plane detector arrangement is practicable, as it offers the convenience of breast immobilization. However, the serious blurring effect of the double-plane PET, with changeable spacing for different breast sizes, should be studied. We investigated a high resolution reconstruction method applicable for a double-plane PET. The distance between the detector planes is changeable. Geometric and blurring components were calculated in real-time for different detector distances, and accurate geometric sensitivity was obtained with a new tube area model. Resolution recovery was achieved by estimating blurring effects derived from simulated single gamma response information. The results showed that the new geometric modeling gave a more finite and smooth sensitivity weight in the double-plane PET. The blurring component yielded contrast recovery levels that could not be reached without blurring modeling, and improved visual recovery of the smallest spheres and better delineation of the structures in the reconstructed images were achieved with the blurring component. Statistical noise had lower variance at the voxel level with blurring modeling at matched resolution, compared to without blurring modeling. In distance-changeable double-plane PET, finite resolution modeling during reconstruction achieved resolution recovery, without noise amplification.