## 2017 Vol. 41, No. 10

Display Method: |

2017, 41(10): 101001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/10/101001

**Abstract:**

After summarizing the experimental results and present status of the

*d*

^{*}(2380) observed at WASA@COSY, two "extreme" models for explaining its structure, a compact hexaquark dominated model and a loose △△'-

*D*

_{12}π model, are briefly discussed, especially the former. By comparing their results with the corresponding data, the differences of the two models are addressed. As a remedy for the latter model, a mixing model and its result are also quoted for a comparison. It is shown that the compact hexaquark dominated structure might be more promising. However, the mixing model is also a possible structure, and more accurate

*Γ*

_{d*→NNπ}data are needed for confirmation.

2017, 41(10): 103001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/10/103001

**Abstract:**

The indirect estimation of the Higgs Boson mass from electroweak radiative corrections within the Standard Model is compared with the directly measured value obtained by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations at the CERN LHC collider. Treating the direct measurement of

*m*

_{H}as input, the Standard Model indirect estimation of the top-quark mass is also obtained and compared with its directly measured value. A model-independent analysis finds an indirect value of

*m*

_{H}of ≈ 70 GeV, below the directly measured value of 125.7±0.4 GeV and an indirect value:

*m*

_{t}=177.3±1.0 GeV, above the directly measured value:173.21±0.87 GeV. A goodness-of-fit test to the Standard Model using all Z-pole observables and

*m*

_{W}has a

*χ*

^{2}probability of ≈ 2%. The reason why probability values about a factor of ten larger than this, and indirect estimates of

*m*

_{H}about 30 GeV higher, have been obtained in recent global fits to the same data is recalled.

2017, 41(10): 103101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/10/103101

**Abstract:**

In this work, we calculate the equation of state (EoS) of quark gluon-plasma (QGP) using the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis (CJT) effective action. We get the quark propagator by using the rank-1 separable model within the framework of the Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSEs). The results from CJT effective action are compared with lattice QCD data. We find that, when

*μ*is small, our results generally fit the lattice QCD data when

*T*>

*T*

_{c}, but show deviations at and below

*T*

_{c}. It can be concluded that the EoS of CJT is reliable when

*T*>

*T*

_{c}. Then, by adopting the hydrodynamic code UVH2+1, we compare the CJT results of the multiplicity and elliptic flow

*v*

_{2}with the PHENIX data and the results from the original EoS in UVH2+1. While the CJT results of multiplicities generally match the original UVH2+1 results and fit the experimental data, the CJT results of

*v*

_{2}are slightly larger than the original UVH2+1 results for centralities smaller than 40% and smaller than the original UVH2+1 results for higher centralities.

2017, 41(10): 103102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/10/103102

**Abstract:**

The Elementary Goldstone Higgs (EGH) model is a perturbative extension of the standard model (SM), which identifies the EGH boson as the observed Higgs boson. In this paper, we study pair production of the EGH boson via gluon fusion at the LHC and find that the resonant contribution of the heavy scalar is very small and the SM-like triangle diagram contribution is strongly suppressed. The total production cross section mainly comes from the box diagram contribution and its value can be significantly enhanced with respect to the SM prediction.

2017, 41(10): 103103. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/10/103103

**Abstract:**

We present a search strategy for both Dirac and Majorana sterile neutrinos from the purely leptonic decays of W

^{±}→e

^{±}e

^{±}μ

^{∓}v and μ

^{±}μ

^{±}e

^{∓}v at the 14 TeV LHC. The discovery and exclusion limits for sterile neutrinos are shown using both the Cut-and-Count (CC) and Multi-Variate Analysis (MVA) methods. We also discriminate between Dirac and Majorana sterile neutrinos by exploiting a set of kinematic observables which differ between the Dirac and Majorana cases. We find that the MVA method, compared to the more common CC method, can greatly enhance the discovery and discrimination limits. Two benchmark points with sterile neutrino mass

*m*

_{N}=20 GeV and 50 GeV are tested. For an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb

^{-1}, sterile neutrinos can be found with 5

*σ*significance if heavy-to-light neutrino mixings|

*U*

_{Ne}|

^{2}~|

*U*

_{Nμ}|

^{2}~10

^{-6}, while Majorana vs. Dirac discrimination can be reached if at least one of the mixings is of order 10

^{-5}.

2017, 41(10): 103104. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/10/103104

**Abstract:**

The topological charge density and topological susceptibility are determined by a multi-probing approximation using overlap fermions in quenched

*SU*(3) gauge theory. Then we investigate the topological structure of the quenched QCD vacuum, and compare it with results from the all-scale topological density. The results are consistent. Random permuted topological charge density is used to check whether these structures represent underlying ordered properties. The pseudoscalar glueball mass is extracted from the two-point correlation function of the topological charge density. We study 3 ensembles of different lattice spacing a with the same lattice volume 16

^{3}×32. The results are compatible with the results of all-scale topological charge density, and the topological structures revealed by multi-probing are much closer to all-scale topological charge density than those from eigenmode expansion.

2017, 41(10): 103105. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/10/103105

**Abstract:**

Using the one-boson-exchange model, we investigate the Λ

_{c}D

_{s}

^{*}, ∑

_{c}D

_{s}

^{*}, ∑

_{c}

^{*}D

_{s}

^{*}, Ξ

_{c}D

^{*}, Ξ'

_{c}D

^{*}, and Ξ

_{c}

^{*}D

^{*}interactions by considering the one-eta-exchange and/or one-pion-exchange contributions. We further predict the existence of hidden-charm molecular pentaquarks. Promising candidates for hidden-charm molecular pentaquarks include a Ξ'

_{c}D

^{*}state with 0((1/2)

^{-}) and the Ξ

_{c}

^{*}D

^{*}states with 0((1/2)

^{-}) and 0((3/2)

^{-}). Experimental searches for these predicted hidden-charm molecular pentaquarks are an interesting future research topic for experiments like LHCb.

2017, 41(10): 103106. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/10/103106

**Abstract:**

The relativistic Dirac equation in four-dimensional spacetime reveals a coherent relation between the dimensions of spacetime and the degrees of freedom of fermionic spinors. A massless Dirac fermion generates new symmetries corresponding to chirality spin and charge spin as well as conformal scaling transformations. With the introduction of intrinsic W-parity, a massless Dirac fermion can be treated as a Majorana-type or Weyl-type spinor in a six-dimensional spacetime that reflects the intrinsic quantum numbers of chirality spin. A generalized Dirac equation is obtained in the six-dimensional spacetime with a maximal symmetry. Based on the framework of gravitational quantum field theory proposed in Ref.[1] with the postulate of gauge invariance and coordinate independence, we arrive at a maximally symmetric gravitational gauge field theory for the massless Dirac fermion in six-dimensional spacetime. Such a theory is governed by the local spin gauge symmetry

*SP*(1,5) and the global Poincaré symmetry

*P*(1,5)=

*SO*(1,5)∝

*P*

^{1,5}as well as the charge spin gauge symmetry

*SU*(2). The theory leads to the prediction of doubly electrically charged bosons. A scalar field and conformal scaling gauge field are introduced to maintain both global and local conformal scaling symmetries. A generalized gravitational Dirac equation for the massless Dirac fermion is derived in the six-dimensional spacetime. The equations of motion for gauge fields are obtained with conserved currents in the presence of gravitational effects. The dynamics of the gauge-type gravifield as a Goldstone-like boson is shown to be governed by a conserved energy-momentum tensor, and its symmetric part provides a generalized Einstein equation of gravity. An alternative geometrical symmetry breaking mechanism for the mass generation of Dirac fermions is demonstrated.

2017, 41(10): 104001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/10/104001

**Abstract:**

The effects of breakup reactions on elastic and α-production channels for the

^{6}Li+

^{116}Sn system have been investigated at energies below and near the Coulomb barrier. The angular distributions of α-particle production differential cross sections have been obtained at several projectile energies between 22 and 40 MeV. The measured breakup α-particle differential cross sections and elastic scattering angular distributions have been compared with the predictions of continuum-discretized coupled channels (CDCC) calculations. The influence of breakup coupling has also been investigated by extracting dynamic polarization potentials (DPP) from the CDCC calculations. From the predictions of CDCC calculations the relative importance of the nuclear, Coulomb, and total breakup contributions have also been investigated. The nuclear breakup couplings are observed to play an important role in comparison to the Coulomb breakup for the direct breakup mechanisms associated in the reaction of

^{6}Li projectile with

^{116}Sn target nuclei. The influence of strong nuclear breakup coupling exhibits suppression in the Coulomb-nuclear interference peak. The direct breakup cross sections from the CDCC calculations under-predict the measured α-particle differential cross sections at all energies. This suggests that the measured α particles may also have contributions from other possible breakup reaction channels.

2017, 41(10): 104101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/10/104101

**Abstract:**

In many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) we always introduce a parameter

*N*

_{shell}to measure the maximal allowed major harmonic-oscillator (HO) shells for the single-particle basis, while the no-core shell model (NCSM) uses

*N*

_{max}

*hΩ*HO excitation truncation above the lowest HO configuration for the many-body basis. It is worth comparing the two different methods. Starting from "bare" and Okubo-Lee-Suzuki renormalized modern nucleon-nucleon interactions, NNLO

_{opt}and JISP16, we show that MBPT within Hartree-Fock bases is in reasonable agreement with NCSM within harmonic oscillator bases for

^{4}He and

^{16}O in "close" model space. In addition, we compare the results using "bare" force with the Okubo-Lee-Suzuki renormalized force.

2017, 41(10): 104102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/10/104102

**Abstract:**

A shell-model investigation is performed to show the impact on the structure of

^{14}C from the off-diagonal cross-shell interaction, 〈

*pp*|

*V*|

*sdsd*〉, which represents the mixing between the 0 and 2

*hω*configurations in the

*psd*model space. The observed levels of the positive states in

^{14}C can be nicely described in 0-4

*hω*or a larger model space through the well defined Hamiltonians, YSOX and WBP, with a reduction of the strength of the 〈

*pp*|

*V*|

*sdsd*〉 interaction in the latter. The observed B(GT) values for

^{14}C can be generally described by YSOX, while WBP and their modifications of the 〈

*pp*|

*V*|

*sdsd*〉 interaction fail for some values. Further investigation shows the effect of such interactions on the configuration mixing and occupancy. The present work shows examples of how the off-diagonal cross-shell interaction strongly drives the nuclear structure.

2017, 41(10): 104103. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/10/104103

**Abstract:**

We study the influence of measured high cumulants of conserved charges on their associated statistical uncertainties in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. With a given number of events, the measured cumulants randomly fluctuate with an approximately normal distribution, while the estimated statistical uncertainties are found to be correlated with corresponding values of the obtained cumulants. Generally, with a given number of events, the larger the cumulants we measure, the larger the statistical uncertainties that are estimated. The error-weighted averaged cumulants are dependent on statistics. Despite this effect, however, it is found that the three sigma rule of thumb is still applicable when the statistics are above one million.

2017, 41(10): 104104. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/10/104104

**Abstract:**

Within an isospin and momentum dependent transport model, the dynamics of isospin particles (nucleons and light clusters) in Fermi-energy heavy-ion collisions are investigated for constraining the isospin splitting of nucleon effective mass and the symmetry energy at subsaturation densities. The impacts of the isoscalar and isovector parts of the momentum dependent interaction on the emissions of isospin particles are explored, i.e., the mass splittings of

*m*

_{n}

^{*}=

*m*

_{p}

^{*}and

*m*

_{n}

^{*}>

*m*

_{p}

^{*}(

*m*

_{n}

^{*}<

*m*

_{p}

^{*}). The single and double neutron to proton ratios of free nucleons and light particles are thoroughly investigated in the isotopic nuclear reactions of

^{112}Sn+

^{112}Sn and

^{124}Sn+

^{124}Sn at incident energies of 50 and 120 MeV/nucleon, respectively. It is found that both the effective mass splitting and symmetry energy impact the kinetic energy spectra of the single ratios, in particular at the high energy tail (larger than 20 MeV). The isospin splitting of nucleon effective mass slightly impacts the double ratio spectra at the energy of 50 MeV/nucleon. A soft symmetry energy with stiffness coefficient of

*γ*

_{s}=0.5 is constrained from the experimental data with the Fermi-energy heavy-ion collisions.

2017, 41(10): 105101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/10/105101

**Abstract:**

A mixed hydrogen and helium (H+He) spectrum with a clear steepening at 700 TeV has been detected by the ARGO-YBJ experiments. In this paper, we demonstrate that the observed H+He spectrum can be reproduced well with a model of cosmic rays escaping from the supernova remnants (SNRs) in our Galaxy. In this model, particles are accelerated in a SNR through a non-linear diffusive shock acceleration mechanism. Three components of high energy light nuclei escaped from the SNR are considered. It should be noted that the proton spectrum observed by KASCADE can be also explained by this model given a higher acceleration efficiency.

2017, 41(10): 106001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/10/106001

**Abstract:**

In this paper, we present a study of temperature effects on BGO calorimeters using proton MIPs collected in the first year of operation of DAMPE. By directly comparing MIP calibration constants used by the DAMPE data production pipe line, we find an experimental relation between the temperature and signal amplitudes of each BGO bar:a general deviation of -1.162%/℃, and -0.47%/℃ to -1.60%/℃ statistically for each detector element. During 2016, DAMPE's temperature changed by~8℃ due to solar elevation angle, and the corresponding energy scale bias is about 9%. By frequent MIP calibration operation, this kind of bias is eliminated to an acceptable value.

2017, 41(10): 106201. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/10/106201

**Abstract:**

A software system has been developed for the DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) mission, a satellite-based experiment. The DAMPE software is mainly written in C++ and steered using a Python script. This article presents an overview of the DAMPE offline software, including the major architecture design and specific implementation for simulation, calibration and reconstruction. The whole system has been successfully applied to DAMPE data analysis. Some results obtained using the system, from simulation and beam test experiments, are presented.

2017, 41(10): 107001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/10/107001

**Abstract:**

Transient beam loading is one of the key issues in any high beam current intensity superconducting accelerators, and needs to be carefully investigated. The core problem in the analysis is to obtain the time evolution of effective cavity voltage under transient beam loading. To simplify the problem, the second order ordinary differential equation describing the behavior of the effective cavity voltage is intuitively simplified to a first order one, with the aid of two critical approximations which lack proof of their validity. In this paper, the validity is examined mathematically in some specific cases, resulting in a criterion for the simplification. It is popular to solve the approximate equation for the effective cavity voltage numerically, while this paper shows that it can also be solved analytically under the step function approximation for the driven term. With the analytical solution to the effective cavity voltage, the transient reflected power from the cavity and the energy gain of the central particle in the bunch can also be calculated analytically. The validity of the step function approximation for the driven term is examined by direct evaluations. After that, the analytical results are compared with the numerical ones.

2017, 41(10): 108101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/41/10/108101

**Abstract:**

FELiChEM is an infrared free electron laser (FEL) facility currently under construction, which consists of two oscillators generating middle-infrared and far-infrared laser covering the spectral range of 2.5-200 μm. In this paper, we numerically study the output characteristics of the middle-infrared oscillator with accurate cavity length detuning. Emphasis is put on the temporal structure of the micropulse and the corresponding spectral bandwidth. Taking the radiation wavelengths of 50 μm and 5 μm as examples, we show that the output pulse duration can be tuned in the range of 1-6 ps with corresponding bandwidth of 13%-0.2% by adjusting the cavity length detuning. In addition, a special discussion on the comb structure is presented, and it is indicated that the comb structure may arise in the output optical pulse when the normalized slippage length is much smaller than unity. This work has reference value for the operation of FELiChEM and other FEL oscillators.

Original research articles, Ietters and reviews Covering theory and experiments in the fieids of

- Particle physics
- Nuclear physics
- Particle and nuclear astrophysics
- Cosmology

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