2009 Vol. 33, No. S2
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The China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is an accelerator-based facility. The
accelerator of CSNS consists of a low energy linac, a Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) and two beam transport lines. The overall physics design of CSNS accelerator is described, including the design principle, the choice of the main parameters and design of each part of accelerators. The key problems of the physics design, such as beam loss and control, are also discussed. The interface between the different parts of accelerator, as well as between accelerator and target, are introduced.
China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is a high power proton accelerator-based facility. Uncontrolled beam loss is a major concern in designing the CSNS to control the radioactivation level. For the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) of the CSNS, the repetition frequency is too high for the longitudinal motion to be fully adiabatic. Significant beam loss happens during the RF capture and initial acceleration of the injection period. To reduce the longitudinal beam loss, beam chopping and momentum offset painting methods are used in the RCS injection. This paper presents detailed studies on the longitudinal motion in the RCS by using the ORBIT simulations, which include different beam chopping factors, momentum offsets and RF voltage optimization. With a trade-off between the longitudinal beam loss and transverse incoherent tune shift that will also result in beam losses, optimized longitudinal painting schemes are obtained.
The electron proton (e-p) instability has been observed in many proton accelerators. It will induce transverse beam size blow-up, cause beam loss and restrict the machine performance. Much research work has been done on the causes, dynamics and cures of this instability. A simulation code is developed to study the e-p instability in the ring of the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS).
HIRFL-CSR, a new heavy ion cooler-storage-ring system at IMP, had been in commissioning since the beginning of 2006. In the two years of 2006 and 2007 the CSR commissioning was finished, including the stripping injection (STI), electron-cooling with hollow electron beam, C-beam stacking with the combination of STI and e-cooling, the wide energy-range synchrotron ramping from 7 MeV/u to 1000 MeV/u by changing the RF harmonic-number at mid-energy, the multiple multi-turn injection (MMI), the beam accumulation with MMI and e-cooling for heavy-ion beams of Ar, Kr and Xe, the fast extraction from CSRm and single-turn injection to CSRe, beam stacking in CSRe and the RIBs mass-spectrometer test with the isochronous mode in CSRe by using the time-of-flight method.
A new generation electron cooler has started operation in the heavy ion synchrotron CSRm which is used to increase the intensity of heavy ions. Transverse cooling of the ion beam after horizontal multi-turn injection allows beam accumulation at the injection energy. After optimization of the accumulation process an intensity increase in a synchrotron pulse by more than one order of magnitude has been achieved. In given accumulation time interval of 10 seconds, 108 particles have been accumulated and accelerated to the final energy. The momentum spread after accumulation and acceleration in the 10－4 range has been demonstrated in six species of ion beams. Primary measurements of accumulation process varying with electron energy, electron beam current, electron beam profile, expansion factor and injection interval have been performed. The lifetimes of ion beams in the presence of electron beams were roughly measured with the help of DCCT signal.
According to the newest matching mode between the two cyclotrons at HIRFL, the beam obit properties were researched, especially for the harm of existing `over-magnetic shim' in SSC as well as the trajectory in the new mode. The results obtained are encouraging.
A high energy heavy ion microbeam irradiation system is constructed at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). A quadrupole focusing system, in combination with a series of slits, has been designed here. The IMP microbeam system is described in detail. The
intrinsic and parasitic aberrations associated with the magnets are simulated. The ion beam optics of this microbeam system is investigated systematically. Then the optimized initial beam parameters are given for high spatial resolution and high hitting rates.
Based on the optimized design of the lattice for therapy synchrotron and considering the requirement of radiation therapy, the third order resonant extraction is adopted. Using the momentum-amplitude selection method, the extraction system is designed and optimized. An extraction efficiency of more than 97% and a momentum spread less than 0.11% are obtained.
The design and construction of Beijing Radioactive Ion-beam Facility (BRIF) was started at China Institute of Atomic Energy -CIAE) in 2004. In this project, a 100 MeV high intensity cyclotron, CYCIAE-100, is selected as a driving accelerator for radioactive ion beam production. It will provide a proton beam of 75—100 MeV with an intensity of 200—500 μA. The scheme adopted in this design, i.e.,
stripping the accelerated H－, makes the structure more compact and
construction cost much lower. At present, the design for each system has
been accomplished. This paper depicts the basic physics design of the machine, including its major structure and parameters, beam dynamics and each relevant system, e.g. basic structure of the main magnet, numerical simulation of the RF resonant cavity, axial injection system, central region, and study on crucial physics problems concerning the extraction and beam lines. The major problems encountered during the design of CYCIAE-100 are also summarized in this paper.
The vertical focusing is one of the primary problems in the central region of cyclotrons. This focusing effect brought about by the magnetic field is inclined to be weak near the center of the machine due to the fact that the flutter is small, while the electric focusing forces incurred from the dee gaps become very strong. Since the electric focusing effect is dependent on the RF phase, we have proceeded to carry out analytical calculations and numerical simulation about the vertical focusing in the central region of CYCIAE-100, including magnetic focusing, electric focusing and the defocusing effect from the space charge effect. All the results have been used for the design of the central region for CYCIAE-100 and a good vertical focusing has been obtained.
A 100 MeV H- compact cyclotron is under construction at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CYCIAE-100). The proton beams of 75 MeV-100 MeV at an intensity of 200 μA will be extracted in dual opposite directions by charge exchange stripping devices. The crossing point at the switching magnet center is fixed inside the magnet yoke and the stripping points for various extraction energies are calculated by the code CYCTRS. With the code GOBLIN, we can calculate the transfer matrix including the dispersion effects from the stripping point to the switch magnet. The beam distribution just after stripping foil can be obtained from the multi-particle tracking code COMA and the extracted beam parameters after the switch magnet such as emittance, envelope, dispersion, energy spread, bunch length, etc. are given by the extraction orbit simulations.
The accelerators should be properly designed to make the radiation field produced by beam loss satisfy the dose limits. The radiation field for high intensity H－ cyclotron includes prompt radiation and residual radiation field. The induced radioactivity in accelerator components is the dominant source of occupational radiation exposure if the accelerator is well shielded. The source of radiation is the beam loss when cyclotron is operating. In this paper, the radiation field for CYCIAE-100 is calculated using Monte Carlo method and the radioactive contamination near stripping foil is studied. A method to reduce the dose equivalent rate of maintenance staff is also given.
Nowadays high intensity proton accelerators are extensively applied, and this paper gives particular emphasis on CYCIAE-100, a 100~MeV high intensity compact cyclotron being constructed at CIAE. For accelerators of this type, the study is focused on how to improve the beam intensity. As for CYCIAE-100, the charge-exchange extraction is used to get protons. So it is crucial to enhance the lifetime of the stripping foil, which is largely determined by the energy deposition on it. For this cyclotron, due to the influence of the magnetic field, the electrons will spin near the foil and lose energy each time when they cross the foil. The energy deposition refers to all the energy deposition of protons and electrons. This paper stresses the stripper study of CYCIAE-100, in which the particle distribution on the foil is simulated and the energy deposition of the protons and electrons stripped from the H－ ions are calculated. The temperature distributions are then calculated as a main reference for the foil design.
A 75—100 MeV H- compact cyclotron CYCIAE-100 is being constructed at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). About 200 μA proton beam will be provided by CYCIAE-100. The imperfection of magnetic fields will remarkably affect the acceleration orbit and beam envelope in CYCIAE-100. The effects to the accelerating beam by the imperfection fields, especially the field components Br on the mid-plane will be analyzed in detail with tracking code COMA. Poles misalignment that causes magnetic imperfection will be described in the paper. According to the simulation results, the tolerance of the poles machining and assembly will be illustrated in this paper.
The progress of the Separated Function RFQ (SFRFQ) accelerator, which can raise the field gradient of acceleration while maintaining the transverse focusing power sufficient for high current beam, is presented. In order to demonstrate the feasibilities of the novel accelerator, a prototype cavity was designed and constructed. Correspondingly, a code SFRFQCODEV1.0 was developed specially for cavity design and beam dynamics simulation. The prototype cavity will be verified as a post-accelerator for ISR RFQ-1000 (Integral Split Ring RFQ) and
accelerate O+ from 1 MeV to 1.6 MeV. To inject a higher current oxygen beam for the prototype cavity, the beam current of ISR RFQ-1000 was upgraded to 2 mA. The status of high power and beam test preparation for the prototype cavity are presented in this paper.
This is a status report of the project on befalf of the BEPCⅡ team. BEPCⅡ is a major upgrade of the BEPC (Beijing Electron-Positron Collider). It is a double-ring e+-e－ collider as well as a synchrotron radiation (SR) source with its outer ring, or SR ring. As a collider, BEPCⅡ operates in the beam energy region of 1—2.3 GeV with design luminosity of 1×1033 cm－2s－1 at 1.89 GeV. As a light source, the SR ring operates at 2.5 GeV and 250 mA. Construction of the project started in the beginning of 2004. Installation of the storage ring components was completed in October 2007. Commissioning is in progress. There are still many issues for further studies before reach to 3×1032 cm－2s－1.
During the 1 st and 2 nd stages of the commissioning of the upgrade project of the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPCⅡ), which started on Nov. 12, 2006 and Oct. 24, 2007, respectively, we got the luminosity one tenth of its design value, provided beams to synchrotron radiation users for about 4 months, and studied beam dynamics as well. In this paper, some beam dynamics studies on the storage rings and their preliminary results are given.
Electron Cloud Instability has been studied in the operation of BEPC. The BEPCⅡ began the commissioning in November 2006 and the positron beam current has reached 500 mA. Because of such a high beam current, some instabilities such as ECI, bunch lengthening et al, have appeared during the operation. The experimental investigation on ECI during the commissioning of BEPCⅡ will be reported in this paper.
During the SSRF(Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility) storage ring phase-I commissioning, some instabilities have been observed, and the broadband impedance has also been measured. The primary instabilities at present stage are vertical beam blow up and resistive wall instability.
The Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) is a low emittance third-generation synchrotron radiation light source. Some optics parameters of the storage ring were measured when commissioning. This report presents the common methods for measuring some optics parameters of the storage ring, including the betatron tune, beta function, chromaticity, natural chromaticity and dispersion. The results and analysis of measurement for the optics parameters are given here, which are indispensable for the orbit correction of the accelerator and the nonlinear optimization.
Phase I commissioning of the SSRF storage ring on 3.0 GeV beam energy was started at the end of December 2007. A lot of encouraging results have been obtained so far. In this paper, calibrations of the linear optics during the commissioning are discussed, and some measured results about the nonlinearity given. Calibration procedure emphasizes correcting quadrupole magnetic coefficients with the Linear Optics from Closed Orbit (LOCO) technique. After fitting the closed orbit response matrix, the linear optics of the four test modes is substantially corrected, and the measured physical parameters agree well with the designed ones.
During the design process, multipacting effect has been taken into consideration using a 2D simulation code MultiPac and all of the corners are rounded to suppress the multipacting effect in the pill-box cavity. However, unexpected multipacting effect prevents the increase of the input power when the magnetic field of focusing coils is added after adequate conditioning and a novel method is adopted to suppress it by introducing extra coils to counteract the field. This paper focuses on the simulation of multipacting effect in different magnetic field configurations. The experimental observations and simulation results of multipacting effect are presented and details of the multipacting process are also analyzed.
High brightness of SSRF brings about synchrotron radiation security problems, which will be solved in physics design. The main radiations are generated from bending magnets and insertion devices. Since the fact that radiation power and radiating area are different in these two kinds of synchrotron radiation, the arrangements of photon absorbers, diaphragms and other vacuum components need to be treated distinctively. In addition, SSRF interlock protection threshold is defined and the beam orbit in the straight line is limited. Hence, beam orbit in the bending magnets and IDs are also restricted by the threshold. The orbit restriction is calculated and helps us to arrange the vacuum components. In this paper, beam orbit distortion restricted by interlock protection threshold, radiation power, radiation angle and illuminating area are calculated. From the calculation results, the physics designs in manufacture and installation vacuum components are put forward. By commissioning, it is shown that physics requirements are met rigidly in the engineering process.
We adopt the groove guide as the cavity of the undulator to reduce the diffraction effect. The groove guide has the advantages of lower surface energy loss, larger power capacity, less modes, and larger structure dimension over the traditional method waveguide. The attenuation calculation is given in this paper including the cavity optimization. And the dispersive character indicates that the oscillator can work in different modes with the change of the electron beam energy.
Recent progress in the accelerator structure studies at SLAC is reported. This paper covers the room temperature accelerator structures for the ILC e+/e－ sources; RF structures for some photon science projects including RF deflectors and the LCLS RF gun; the high gradient accelerator R & D in a global CLIC collaboration for the future multi-TeV linear colliders.
In this paper, we present the simulation results of a 1.6 cell X-band photocathode RF gun for ultra-low emittance electron beams. It will work at 9.3 GHz. The emittance, bunch length, electron energy and energy spread at the gun exit are optimized at bunch charge of 1pC using PARMELA. Electron bunches with emittance about 0.1 mm·mrad and bunch length less than 100 fs can be obtained from this gun. A PITZ type coupler is adopted in this gun and an initial simulation by MAFIA is also given in this paper.
Beam dynamics and RF design have been performed of a new type trapezoidal IH-RFQ operating at 104 MHz for acceleration of 14C+ in the framework of RFQ based 14C AMS facility at Peking University. Low energy spread RFQ beam dynamics design was approached by the method of internal discrete bunching. 14C+ will be accelerated from 40 keV to 500 keV with the length of about 1.1 m. The designed transmission efficiency is better than 95% and the energy spread is as low as 0.6%. Combining the beam dynamics design, a trapezoidal IH-RFQ structure was proposed, which can be cooled more easily and has better mechanical performance than traditional RFQ. Electromagnetic field distribution was simulated by using CST Microwave Studio (MWS). The specific shunt impedance and the quality factor were optimized primarily.
A small, high performance X-band hybrid dielectric-iris-loaded travelling-wave linac with the length of 1.47 m and the maximum accelerating gradient of 45 MV/m has been designed. The beam energy of 33 MeV, the energy spread of 0.5%, the beam emittance of about 5.7 π mm·mrad and the capture efficiency of 40% are reached by adjusting the sizes of the accelerating cavities and the phase velocity. The attenuation per unit length of structure, the shunt impedance Rs, the quality factor $Q$, the group velocity and the phase velocity are also presented.
We give here an ordered list of all types of particle accelerators and exhibit how each type evolves conceptually and/or technologically from the preceding. This is in contrast to the usual ``history of particle accelerators" in which unrelated accelerator types are listed in the chronological order. It is hoped that this discussion and understanding of the rationale and logic in the evolution of one accelerator type to the next will help to educe future inventions.
A SLIM formalism to deal with a general, linearly coupled accelerator lattice is summarized. Its application to a wide range of accelerator calculations is emphasized.
The intense dc beam nonlinear transport was analyzed with the Lie algebraic
method, and the particle trajectories of the second order approximation were
obtained. Based on the theoretical analysis a computer code was designed. To
get self-consistent solutions, iteration procedures were used in the code.
As an example, we calculated a beam line (drift-electrostatic quadrupole
doublet-drift). The results agree to the results calculated by using the PIC method.
Both the PIC (Particle-In-Cell) model and the Lie algebraic method can be used to simulate the transport of intense continuous beams. The PIC model is to calculate the space charge field, which is blended into the external field, and then simulate the trajectories of particles in the total field; the Lie algebraic method is to simulate the intense continuous beam transport with transport matrixes. Two simulation codes based on the two methods are developed respectively, and the simulated results of transport in a set of electrostatic lenses are compared. It is found that the results from the two codes are in agreement with each other, and both approaches have their own merits.
The conceptual of Hefei Advanced Light Source, which is an advanced VUV and Soft X-ray source, was developed at NSRL of USTC. According to the synchrotron radiation user requirements and the trends of SR source development, some accelerator-based schemes were considered and compared; furthermore storage ring with ultra low emittance was adopted as the baseline scheme of HALS. To achieve ultra low emittance, some focusing structures were studied and optimized in the lattice design. Compromising of emittance, on-momentum and off-momentum dynamic aperture and ring scale, five bend acromat (FBA) was employed. In the preliminary design of HALS, the emittance was reduced to sub nm·rad, thus the radiation up to water window has full lateral coherence. The brilliance of undulator radiation covering several eVs to keVs range is higher than that of HLS by several orders. The HALS should be one of the most advanced synchrotron radiation light sources in the world.
The Hefei Advanced Light Source(HALS) is a super low emittance storage ring and has a very short beam life time. In order to run the ring stablely, top-up injection will be necessary. The injection system will greatly affect the quality of beam. This article first gives a physics design of the injecting system. Then the injecting system is tracked under different errors. The responses of storage beam and injecting beam are given in the article.
In China, polymer radiation processing has become one of the most important
processing industries. The radiation processing source may be an electron beam accelerator or a radioactive source. Physical design of an electron beam facility applied for radiation crosslinking is introduced in this paper because of it's much higher dose rate and efficiency. Main part of this facility is a 10 MeV travelling wave electron linac with constant impedance accelerating structure. A start to end simulation concerning the linac is reported in this paper. The codes Opera-3d, Poisson-superfish and Parmela are used to describe electromagnetic elements of the accelerator and track particle distribution from the cathode to the end of the linac. After beam dynamic optimization, wave phase velocities in the structure have been chosen to be 0.56, 0.9 and 0.999 respectively. Physical parameters about the main elements such as DC electron gun, iris-loaded periodic structure, solenoids, etc, are presented. Simulation results proves that it can satisfy the industrial requirement. The linac is under construction. Some components have been finished. Measurements proved that they are in a good agreement with the design values.
In recent years, people are dedicated to the research work of finding compact THz sources with high emission power. Smith-Purcell radiation is qualified for the possibility of coherent enhancement due to the effect of FEL mechanism. The compact experiment device is expected to produce hundreds mW level THz ray. The electron beam with good quality is provided under the optimized design of the electron gun. Besides, the grating is designed as an oscillator without any external feedbacks. While the beam passes through the grating surface, the beam bunching will be strong and the second harmonics enhancement will be evident, as is seen from the simulation results.
Mechanism of terahertz (THz) pulse generation in gases irradiated by ultrashort laser pulses is investigated theoretically. Quasi-static transverse currents produced by laser field ionization of gases and the longitudinal modulation in formed plasmas are responsible for the THz emission at the electron plasma frequency, as demonstrated by particle-in-cell simulations including field ionization. The THz field amplitude scaling with the laser amplitude within a large range is also discussed.
Thomson scattering X-ray sources are compact and affordable facilities that produce short duration, high brightness X-ray pulses enabling new experimental capacities in ultra-fast science studies, and also medical and industrial applications. Such a facility has been built at the Accelerator Laboratory of Tsinghua University, and upgrade is in progress. In this paper, we present a proposed layout of the upgrade with design parameters by simulation, aiming at high X-ray pulses flux and brightness, and also enabling advanced dynamics studies and applications of the electron beam. Design and construction status of main subsystems are also presented.
We present two types of optics for the lattice of a compact storage ring for a Compton X-ray source. The optics design for different operation modes of the storage ring are discussed in detail. For the pulse mode optics, an IBS-suppression scheme is applied to optimize the optics for lower IBS emittance growth rate; as for the steady mode, the method to control momentum compact factor is adopted [Gladkikh P, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 8, 050702] to
obtain stability of the electron beam.
A TW (Tera Watt) laser system based on Ti:sapphire mainly for the Tsinghua Thomson scattering X-ray light source (TTX) is being built. Both UV (ultraviolet) laser pulse for driving the photocathode radio-frequency (RF) gun and the IR (infrared) laser pulse as the electron-beam-scattered-light are provided by the system. Efforts have also been made in laser pulse shaping and laser beam transport to optimize the high-brightness electron beam production by the photocathode RF gun.
Spot size is one of the parameters to characterize the performance of a radiographic X-ray source. It determines the degree of blurring due to magnification directly. In recent years, a variety of measurement methods have been used to diagnose X-ray spot size at Laboratory of Accelerator Physics and Application (LAPA). Computer simulations and experiments showed that using a rolled-edge to measure the spot size are more accurate, and the intensity distribution of X-ray source was obtained by a device with a square aperture. Experimental and simulation results on a flash X-ray source at our laboratory are presented and discussed in this paper. In addition, a new method for time resolved diagnostics of X-ray spot size is introduced too.
An RF deflecting cavity used for bunch length measurement has been designed and fabricated at Tsinghua University for the Thomson Scattering X-Ray Source. The cavity is a 2856 MHz, π-mode, 3-cell standing-wave cavity, to diagnose the 3.5 MeV beam produced by photocathode electron gun. With a larger power source, the same cavity will again be used to measure the accelerated beam with energy of 50~MeV before colliding with the laser pulse.
The RF design using MAFIA for both the cavity shape and the power coupler is reviewed, followed by presenting the fabrication procedure and bench measurement results of two cavities.
Time-resolved MeV ultra-fast electron diffraction (UED) is a powerful tool for structure dynamics studies. In this paper, we present a design of a MeV UED facility based on a photocathode RF gun at Tsinghua University. Electron beam qualities are optimized with numerical simulations, indicating that resolutions of 250 fs and 0.01 AA, and bunch charge exceeding 105 electrons are expected with technically achievable machine parameters. Status of experiment preparation is also presented.
The interaction of ultrashort intense circularly polarized laser with ultra thin overdense foil is studied by particle-in-cell simulation and analytic model. It is found that with the balance between pondermotive force and electrostatic force, highly quasi-monoenergetic proton beam can be generated by Phase Stable
Acceleration (PSA) process. As in conventional accelerators, ion will be accelerated and bunched up in the longitudinal direction at the same time.
The collisional current-filamentation instability (CFI) is studied for a nonrelativistic electron beam penetrating an infinite uniform plasma. It is analytically shown that the CFI is driven by the drift-anisotropy rather than the classical anisotropy of the beam and the background plasma. Therefore, collisional effects can either attenuate or enhance the CFI depending on the drift-anisotropy of the beam-plasma system. Numerical results are given for some typical parameters, which show that collisional effects cannot stabilize but enhance the CFI in a dense plasma. Thus, the CFI may play a dominant role in the fast electron transport and deposition relevant to the fast ignition scenario (FIS).
In this paper, we get the 1D approximate analytical solution of the plasma
electrostatic wake driven by the laser, and get the modified oscillating frequency of this wake. Finally we analyze the longitudinal beam dynamics in this electrostatic wake, and find that the high order terms don't change the
topology of the longitudinal phase space.
An electron injector concept for a laser-plasma accelerator has been developed which relies on the use of counter propagating ultrashort laser pulses. In this paper, we use OOPIC the fully self-consistent, two-dimensional, particle-in-cell code to make a parameter study to determine the bunches that can be obtained through collisions of two collinear laser pulses in uniform plasma. A series of simulations show that one can obtain a short (<10fs) bunch with its charge of about 15pC, and energy spread of about 15%. We also discussed the variation of the transverse spot size of the electron bunch and found the bunch would undergo the betatron oscillations.
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