2012 Vol. 36, No. 11

Particle and field theory
Measurement of J/ψ decays into ΛΛ π+π-
M. Ablikim et al (BESⅡ collaboration)
2012, 36(11): 1031-1039. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/11/001
Based on 58 million J/ψ events collected by the BESⅡ detector at the BEPC, J/ψ→ΛΛ π+π- is observed for the first time. The branching fraction is measured to be Br(J/ψ→ΛΛ π+π-)=(4.30±0.13±0.99)×10-3, excluding the decays to intermediate states, namely J/ψ→Ξ-Ξ+, J/ψ→Σ(1385)-Σ(1385)+, and J/ψ→Σ(1385)+Σ(1385)-. The branching fractions for these intermediate resonance channels are measured to be:Br(J/ψ→Ξ-Ξ+)=(0.90±0.03±0.18)×10-3, Br(J/ψ→Σ(1385)-Σ(1385)+)=(1.23±0.07±0.30)×10-3,and Br(J/ψ→Σ(1385)+Σ(1385)-)=(1.50±0.08±0.38)×10-3, respectively. The angular distribution is of the form dN/d(cosθ)α(1+αcos2θ) with α=(0.35±0.29±0.06) for J/ψ→Ξ-Ξ+, α=(-0.54±0.22±0.10) for J/ψ→Σ(1385)-Σ(1385)+, and α=(-0.35±0.29±0.06) for J/ψ→Σ(1385)+Σ(1385)-.
First evidence of ψ(2S)→Ω-Ω+
M. Ablikim et al (BESⅡ collaboration)
2012, 36(11): 1040-1045. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/11/002
The decay ψ(2S)→Ω-Ω+ is analyzed using 14×106 ψ(2S) events recorded by the Beijing Spectrometer Ⅱ (BESⅡ) at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC). Based upon events with no missing charged tracks and a satisfactory four-constraint kinematic t, we determine the upper limit for the branching fraction of ψ(2S)→Ω-Ω+ to be 1.5×104 at a 90% confidence level. By including events with one missing charged track, we are able to report the first evidence of an Ω+ signal with a statistical signi cance of 3.1|σ. The branching fraction of ψ(2S)Ω+ is determined to be (4.80±1.56(stat)±1.30(sys))105.
B → A transitions in the light-cone QCD sum rules with the chiral current
SUN Yan-Jun, WANG Zhi-Gang, HUANG Tao
2012, 36(11): 1046-1054. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/11/003
In this article, we calculate the form-factors of the transitions B → a1(1260), b1(1235) in the leading-order approximation using the light-cone QCD sum rules. In calculations, we choose the chiral current to interpolate the B-meson, which has the outstanding advantage that the twist-3 light-cone distribution amplitudes of the axial-vector mesons makes no contributions, and the resulting sum rules for the form-factors suffer from far fewer uncertainties. Then we study the semi-leptonic decays B → a1(1260) lvl, b1(1235) lvl (l=e,μ,τ), and make predictions for the differential decay widths and decay widths, which can be compared with the experimental data in the coming future.
One loop integrals reduction
2012, 36(11): 1055-1064. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/11/004
By further examining the symmetry of external momenta and masses in Feynman integrals, we fulfilled the method proposed by Battistel and Dallabona, and showed that recursion relations in this method can be applied to simplify Feynman integrals directly.
Nuclear and ion Physics
Diffusion Monte Carlo calculations ofthree-body systems
REN Zhong-Zhou, LIN Qi-Hu
2012, 36(11): 1065-1068. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/11/005
The application of the diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm in three-body systems is studied. We develop a program and use it to calculate the property of various three-body systems. Regular Coulomb systems such as atoms, molecules, and ions are investigated. The calculation is then extended to exotic systems where electrons are replaced by muons. Some nuclei with neutron halos are also calculated as three-body systems consisting of a core and two external nucleons. Our results agree well with experiments and others' work.
Gluon saturation and pseudo-rapidity distributionsof charged hadrons at RHIC energy regions
WEI Xin-Bing, FENG Sheng-Qin
2012, 36(11): 1069-1076. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/11/006
We modified the gluon saturation model by rescaling the momentum fraction according to saturation momentum and introduced Cooper-Frye hydrodynamic evolution to systematically study the pseudo-rapidity distributions of final charged hadrons at different energies and different centralities for Au-Au collisions in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The features of both gluon saturation and hydrodynamic evolution at different energies and different centralities for Au-Au collisions are investigated in this paper.
Jet production at next-to-leading order in p+Au collisions at the RHIC
HE Yun-Cun, ZHANG Ben-Wei, WANG En-Ke
2012, 36(11): 1077-1081. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/11/007
We calculate jet productions in p+Au collisions at the RHIC at next-to-leading order with perturbative QCD. Inclusive jet transverse energy spectrum, dijet invariant mass spectrum, dijet angular distribution, and corresponding nuclear modification factors for the three observables in p+Au collisions at √s=200 GeV are given, where the initial-state cold nuclear matter (CNM) effects are included by taking advantage of four parametrization sets of nuclear parton distribution functions (nPDFs) - EPS, nCTEQ, HKN and DS. We demonstrate that inclusive jet transverse energy (ET) spectrum, dijet invariant mass (MJJ) spectrum with all 4 nPDFs are increased at low ET or MJJ, whereas at high ET or MJJ large deviation of results with different nPDFs is observed. It is found that the dijet angular distributions in p+Au collisions do not vary relative to those in p+p collisions for all 4 nPDFs.
Detection Technology and Methods
Conditioning the γ spectrometer for activity measurement at very high background
YAN Wei-Hua, ZHANG Li-Guo, ZHANG Zhao, XIAO Zhi-Gang
2012, 36(11): 1082-1088. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/11/008
The application of a high purity Germanium (HPGe) γ spectrometer in determining the fuel element burnup in a future reactor is studied. The HPGe detector is exposed by a 60Co source with varying irradiation rate from 10× 103m s-1 to 150× 103m s-1 to simulate the input counting rate in real reactor environment. A 137Cs and a 152Eu source are positioned at given distances to generate a certain event rate in the detector with the former being proposed as a labeling nuclide to measure the burnup of a fuel element. It is shown that both the energy resolution slightly increasing with the irradiation rate and the passthrough rate at high irradiation level match the requirement of the real application. The influence of the background is studied in the different parameter sets used in the specially developed procedure of background subtraction. It is demonstrated that with the typical input irradiation rate and 137Cs intensity relevant to a deep burnup situation, the precision of the 137Cs counting rate in the current experiment is consistently below 2.8%, indicating a promising feasibility of utilizing an HPGe detector in the burnup measurement in future bed-like reactors.
Study of a position-sensitive scintillator neutron detector
TANG Bin, SUN Zhi-Jia, ZHANG Qiang, YANG Zhen, XU Hong, YANG Gui-An, WANG Yan-Feng, WU Chong, CHEN Yuan-Bo, YANG Lei
2012, 36(11): 1089-1094. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/11/009
The investigation of a novel thermal neutron detector is developed to fulfill the requirements of the high intensity power diffractometer (HIPD) at the Chinese Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS). It consists of two layers of 6LiF/ZnS(Ag) scintillators, two layers of crossed WLSF arrays, several multi-anode photo multiplier tubes (MA-PMT), and the matching readout electronics. The neutron detection efficiency of the scintilltors, the light transportation ability of the WLSF, and the spatial linearity of the readout electronics are measured and discussed in this paper. It shows that the sandwich structure and the compact readout electronics could fulfill the needs of the HIPD. A prototype with a 10 cm×10 cm sensitive area has been constructed to further study the characteristics of the neutron scintillator detector.
A position-sensitive detector with lithium glass and MaPMT
FU Zai-Wei, JIA Ru, HENG Yue-Kun, QI Ming, HUANG Chang-Hao, LIU Shu-Lin, QIAN Sen, LI Shao-Li, CHEN Xiao-Hui, LIU Shu-Dong, LEI Xiang-Cui, HUANG Guo-Rui
2012, 36(11): 1095-1100. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/11/010
A position-sensitive detector is designed for neutron detection. It uses a single continuous screen of a self-made lithium glass scintillator, rather than discrete crystal implementations, coupling with a multi-anode PMT (MaPMT). The scintillator is fast and efficient; with a decay time of 34 ns and thermal neutron detection efficiency of around 95.8% for the 3 mm thick screen, and its light yield is around 5670 photons per neutron and 3768 photons per MeV γ rays deposition. The spatial resolution is around 1.6 mm (FWHM) with the energy resolution around 34.7% by using α (5.2 MeV) rays test.
A novel 2-dimensional cosmic ray position detector based on a CsI(Na) pixel array and an ICCD camera
GE Yong-Shuai, WANG Zhi-Gang, YU Bo-Xiang, XIE Yu-Guang, ZHANG Ai-Wu, XUE Zhen, LIU Ying-Biao, GAO Long, NIU Shun-Li, CAI Xiao, FANG Jian, SUN Xi-Lei, NING Fei-Peng, ZHOU Li, HU Tao
2012, 36(11): 1101-1105. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/11/011
A novel 2-D cosmic ray position detector has been built and studied. It is integrated from a CsI(Na) crystal pixel array, an optical fiber array, an image intensifier and an ICCD camera. The 2-D positions of one cosmic ray track is determined by the location of a fired CsI(Na) pixel. The scintillation light of these 1.0× 1.0 mm CsI(Na) pixels is delivered to the image intensifier through fibers. The light information is recorded in the ICCD camera in the form of images, from which the 2-D positions can be reconstructed. The background noise and cosmic ray images have been studied. The study shows that the cosmic ray detection efficiency can reach up to 11.4%, while the false accept rate is less than 1%.
Simulation study of the parallax effectof gaseous detectors
WANG Xiao-Hu, WU Jun-Long, LI Jiang-Bo
2012, 36(11): 1106-1110. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/11/012
A simulation study of the parallax effect of gaseous detectors using the Garfield program is reported. A method that mainly uses non-uniform cathode potentials to reduce the parallax error of planar type gas detectors is described. By applying it to MWPC and Micro-pattern gas detectors, the method reduces the parallax broadening with very good results. For a 13° incidence track, the width (FWHM) of the parallax broadening is reduced to less than 20% of the normal one after using the special cathode potentials.
Tracking simulations for the HLS-Ⅱ with a passive harmonic cavity in the symmetricand asymmetric fill patterns
FAN Hao, WU Cong-Feng, WANG Lin
2012, 36(11): 1111-1115. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/11/013
A simulation code that executes the tracking of longitudinal oscillations of the bunches for the double rf system of the Hefei Light Source Ⅱ Project (HLS-Ⅱ) is presented to estimate the mean beam lifetime and the Robinson instabilities. The tracking results show that the mean beam lifetime is in agreement with the analytical results and the system is stable when we tune the harmonic cavity in the optimum lengthening conditions. Moreover, the simulated results of the asymmetric fill pattern show that some bunches are compressed only with a 7% gap (3 gaps), which will lead to the reduction in the mean bunch lengthening and potential beam lifetime. It is demonstrated that HLS-Ⅱ with a passive higher harmonic cavity is not suitable for operating in an asymmetric fill pattern.
A preliminary study of the feasibility of using superconducting quarter-wave resonators foraccelerating high intensity proton beams
YANG Liu, LU Xiang-Yang, QUAN Sheng-Wen, YAO Zhong-Yuan, LUO Xing, ZHOU Kui
2012, 36(11): 1116-1119. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/11/014
The superconducting (SC) cavities currently used for the acceleration of protons at a low velocity range are based on half-wave resonators. Due to the rising demand on high current, the issue of beam loading and space-charge problems has arisen. Qualities of low cost and high accelerating efficiency are required for SC cavities, which are properly fitted by using SC quarter-wave resonators (QWR). We propose a concept of using QWRs with frequency 162.5 MHz to accelerate high current proton beams. The main factor limiting SC QWRs being applied to high current proton beams is vertical beam steering, which is dominantly caused by the magnetic field on axis. In this paper, we intend to analyze steering and eliminate it to verify the qualification of using QWRs to accelerate high intensity proton beams.
MIA analysis of FPGA BPMs and beam optics at APS
JI Da-Heng, WANG Chun-Xi, QIN Qing
2012, 36(11): 1120-1125. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/11/015
Model independent analysis, which was developed for high precision and fast beam dynamics analysis, is a promising diagnostic tool for modern accelerators. We implemented a series of methods to analyze the turn-by-turn BPM data. Green's functions corresponding to the local transfer matrix elements R12 or R34 are extracted from BPM data and fitted with the model lattice using least-square fitting. Here, we report experimental results obtained from analyzing the transverse motion of a beam in the storage ring at the Advanced Photon Source. BPM gains and uncoupled optics parameters are successfully determined. Quadrupole strengths are adjusted for fitting but can not be uniquely determined in general due to an insufficient number of BPMs.
Beam dynamics simulation of HEBT for the SSC-linac injector
LI Xiao-Ni, YUAN You-Jin, XIAO Chen, HE Yuan, WANG Zhi-Jun, SHENG Li-Na
2012, 36(11): 1126-1131. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/11/016
The SSC-linac (a new injector for the Separated Sector Cyclotron) is being designed in the HIRFL (Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou) system to accelerate 238U34+ from 3.72 keV/u to 1.008 MeV/u. As a part of the SSC-linac injector, the HEBT (high energy beam transport) has been designed by using the TRACE-3D code and simulated by the 3D PIC (particle-in-cell) Track code. The total length of the HEBT is about 12 meters and a beam line of about 6 meters are shared with the exiting beam line of the HIRFL system. The simulation results show that the particles can be delivered efficiently in the HEBT and the particles at the exit of the HEBT well match the acceptance of the SSC for further acceleration. The dispersion is eliminated absolutely in the HEBT. The space-charge effect calculated by the Track code is inconspicuous. According to the simulation, more than 60 percent of the particles from the ion source can be transported into the acceptance of the SSC.
Analysis and simulation of a coupled-cavity pulse compressor
XIAO Ou-Zheng, ZHAO Feng-Li
2012, 36(11): 1132-1135. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/11/017
An equivalent circuit model is built for a coupled-resonator pulse compressor. Based on the circuit, the general second order differential equation is derived and converted into the first order equation to save computing time. In order to analyze the transient response and optimize parameters for the pulse compressor, we have developed a simulation code. In addition, we have also designed a three-cavity pulse compressor to get the maximum energy multiplication factor. The size of the cavities and coupling apertures is determined by HFSS.
Study of Robinson instabilities with a higher-harmonic cavity for the HLS phase Ⅱ project
ZHAO Yu-Ning, LI Wei-Min, WU Cong-Feng, WANG Lin
2012, 36(11): 1136-1139. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/11/018
In the Phase Ⅱ Project at the Hefei Light Source, a fourth-harmonic "Landau" cavity will be operated in order to suppress the coupled-bunch instabilities and increase the beam lifetime of the Hefei storage ring. Instabilities limit the utility of the higher-harmonic cavity when the storage ring is operated with a small momentum compaction. Analytical modeling and simulations show that the instabilities result from Robinson mode coupling. In the analytic modeling, we operate an algorithm to consider the Robinson instabilities. To study the evolution of unstable behavior, simulations have been performed in which macroparticles are distributed among the buckets. Both the analytic modeling and simulations agree for passive operation of the harmonic cavity.
Synchrotron radiation,applications of nuclear techniquees,etc
Influence of 12C6+ ion irradiation on mutant avermitilis
WANG Shu-Yang, CHEN Ji-Hong, LI Wen-Jian, LIANG Jian-Ping, BO Yong-Heng, MA Xiao-Qi, LIU Jing
2012, 36(11): 1140-1144. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/11/019
The effects of 12C+6 ion irradiation on colony morphology and mycelia morphology, as well as on mutation rate have been studied in the B1a high-product strains (ZJAV-Y1-203) mutated by heavy ion irradiation and compared with that in the original strain (ZJAV-A-1). After irradiating the rate of a straw hat colony type having a high ability of producing B1a in ZJAV-Y1-203 strains was higher than that found in ZJAV-A-1 strains. When strains were cultured in a liquid medium for 24 hours, the mycelium becoming thinner could be observed in all of the irradiated ZJAV- Y1-203 groups, but only in the ZJAV-A-1 groups irradiated at the dose of 50 Gy or more. The early growth of mycelium was inhibited in the ZJAV- Y1-203 group irradiated with a high dose. The highest positive mutation rate (23.5%) of ZJAV - Y1 - 203 was reached at the lower dose of 30 Gy while the highest positive mutation rate of 34.2% in ZJAV-A-1 appeared at 50 Gy.
These results indicate that the effects of heavy ion irradiation still exist even in the mutated Streptomyces avermitilis, and only the dose is lower and the effects not so strong compared with the one that is first irradiated with optimized heavy ion doses. This is evidence of the one directional mutation being controlled by many more factors in a organism.
Recent progress in AMS measurement of 182Hf at the CIAE
LI Zhen-Yu, HE Ming, DONG Ke-Jun, HE Guo-Zhu, LI Chao-Li, HE Xian-Wen, ZHANG Wei, HU Hao, ZHENG Guo-Wen, LI Heng, WU Shao-Yong, YUAN Jian, JIANG Shan
2012, 36(11): 1145-1149. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/11/020
In order to improve the accuracy of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurement for 182Hf/180Hf, a series of measurements have been taken in the AMS laboratory at the China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). The major ones include the instantaneous monitoring of 180HfF5- current, testing the stability of transmission, the alternate measurements of an unknown sample and standard, and the origin identification and minimization of background 182W. The experimental details and the improvement in the measurement accuracy, as well as some useful suggestions for better satisfying the requirements of certain practical applications, are presented in this paper.
Absorbed dose estimations of 131I for critical organs using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation code
Ziaur Rahman, Shakeel ur, Waheed Arshed, Nasir M, Abdul Rashid, Jahan Zeb
2012, 36(11): 1150-1156. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/36/11/021
The aim of this study is to compare the absorbed doses of critical organs of 131I using the MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) with the corresponding predictions made by GEANT4 simulations. S-values (mean absorbed dose rate per unit activity) and energy deposition per decay for critical organs of 131I for various ages, using standard cylindrical phantom comprising water and ICRP soft-tissue material, have also been estimated. In this study the effect of volume reduction of thyroid, during radiation therapy, on the calculation of absorbed dose is also being estimated using GEANT4. Photon specific energy deposition in the other organs of the neck, due to 131I decay in the thyroid organ, has also been estimated. The maximum relative difference of MIRD with the GEANT4 simulated results is 5.64% for an adult's critical organs of 131I. Excellent agreement was found between the results of water and ICRP soft tissue using the cylindrical model. S-values are tabulated for critical organs of 131I, using 1, 5, 10, 15 and 18 years (adults) individuals. S-values for a cylindrical thyroid of different sizes, having 3.07% relative differences of GEANT4 with Siegel & Stabin results. Comparison of the experimentally measured values at 0.5 and 1 m away from neck of the ionization chamber with GEANT4 based Monte Carlo simulations results show good agreement. This study shows that GEANT4 code is an important tool for the internal dosimetry calculations.