## 2015 Vol. 39, No. 3

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2015, 39(3): 033101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/3/033101

**Abstract:**

Based on the Dyson-Schwinger Equations (DSEs), the two-quark vacuum condensate, the four-quark vacuum condensate, and the quark gluon mixed vacuum condensate in the non-perturbative QCD vacuum state are investigated by solving the DSEs with rainbow truncation at zero- and finite-temperature, respectively. These condensates are important input parameters in QCD sum rule with zero and finite temperature, and in studying hadron physics, as well as predicting the quark mean squared momentum

*m*

_{0}

^{2}-also called quark virtuality in the QCD vacuum state. The present calculated results show that these physical quantities are almost independent of the temperature below the critical point temperature

*T*

_{c}=131 MeV, and above

*T*

_{c}the chiral symmetry is restored. For comparison we calculate the temperature dependence of the "in-hadron condensate" for pion. At the same time, we also calculate the ratio of the quark gluon mixed vacuum condensate to the two-quark vacuum condensate by using these condensates, and the unknown quark mean squared momentum in the QCD vacuum state has been obtained. The results show that the ratio

*m*

_{0}

^{2}(

*T*) is almost flat in the temperature region from 0 to

*T*

_{c}, although there are drastic changes of the quark vacuum condensate and the quark gluon mixed vacuum condensate at the region. Our predicted ratio comes out to be

*m*

_{0}

^{2}(

*T*)=2.41 GeV

^{2}at the Chiral limit, which is consistent with other theory model predictions, and strongly indicates the significance that the quark gluon mixed vacuum condensate has played in the virtuality calculations.

2015, 39(3): 033102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/3/033102

**Abstract:**

Within the framework of the perturbative quantum chromodynamics (PQCD) approach, we study the charmless two-body decays B→a

_{1}(1260)K

^{*}, b

_{1}(1235)K

^{*}. Using the decay constants and the light-cone distribution amplitudes for these mesons derived from the QCD sum rule method, we find the following results. (a) Our predictions for the branching ratios are consistent with the QCD factorization (QCDF) results within errors, but much larger than the naive factorization approach calculation values. (b) We predict that the anomalous polarizations occurring in the decays B→φK

^{*}, ρ K

^{*}also happen in B→a

_{1}K

^{*}decays, while they do not happen in B→b

_{1}K

^{*}decays. Here the contributions from the annihilation diagrams play an important role in explaining the larger transverse polarizations in the B→a

_{1}K

^{*}decays, while they are not sensitive to the polarizations for the B→b

_{1}K

^{*}decays. (c) Our predictions for the direct

*CP*-asymmetries agree well with the QCDF results within errors. The decays B

^{0}→b

_{1}

^{+}K

^{*-}, B

^{-}→b

_{1}

^{0}K

^{*-}have larger direct

*CP*-asymmetries, which could be measured by the present LHCb experiment and the forthcoming Super-B experiment.

2015, 39(3): 034101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/3/034101

**Abstract:**

The experimental data on elastic and inelastic scattering of 270 MeV

^{3}He particles to several low lying states in

^{90}Zr,

^{116}Sn and

^{208}Pb are analyzed within the double folding model (DFM). Fermi density distribution (FDD) of target nuclei is used to obtain real potentials with different powers. DF results are introduced into a modified DWUCK4 code to calculate the elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections. Two choices of potentials form factors are used; Woods Saxon (WS) and Woods Saxon Squared (WS

^{2}) for real potential, while the imaginary part is taken as phenomenological Woods Saxon (PWS) and phenomenological Woods Saxon Squared (PWS

^{2}). This comparison provides information about the similarities and differences of the models used in calculations.

2015, 39(3): 034102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/3/034102

**Abstract:**

The stochastic Langevin approach to fission is applied to analyze fission excitation functions measured in p+

^{206}Pb and p+

^{209}Bi systems. A presaddle friction strength of (3-5)×10

^{21}s

^{-1}is extracted by comparing theoretical predictions with experimental data. Furthermore, the small distortion of the formed compound nuclei with respect to the spherical shape under the condition of low angular momentum suggests that experimentally, populating an excited compound system via light-ion induced reactions favors a more accurate determination of presaddle friction with a fission cross section.

2015, 39(3): 034103. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/3/034103

**Abstract:**

We calculate the back-to-back correlation (BBC) functions of relativistic boson-antiboson pairs in high energy heavy ion collisions using the Monte Carlo method. The relativistic effects on the BBC functions of φφ and K

^{+}K

^{-}pairs are investigated. The investigations indicate that the relativistic effects on the BBC functions of K

^{+}K

^{-}pairs with large momenta are significant, and the effect is sensitive to the particle freeze-out temperature.

2015, 39(3): 036001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/3/036001

**Abstract:**

The China Dark Matter Experiment (CDEX) is located at the China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL) and aims to directly detect the weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP) flux with high sensitivity in the low mass region. Here we present a study of the predicted photon and electron backgrounds including the background contribution of the structure materials of the germanium detector, the passive shielding materials, and the intrinsic radioactivity of the liquid argon that serves as an anti-Compton active shielding detector. A detailed geometry is modeled and the background contribution has been simulated based on the measured radioactivities of all possible components within the GEANT4 program. Then the photon and electron background level in the energy region of interest (<10

^{-2}events·kg

^{-1}·day

^{-1}·keV

^{-1}(cpkkd)) is predicted based on Monte Carlo simulations. The simulated result is consistent with the design goal of the CDEX-10 experiment, 0.1cpkkd, which shows that the active and passive shield design of CDEX-10 is effective and feasible.

2015, 39(3): 036201. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/3/036201

**Abstract:**

In this paper, an approach to straight and circle track reconstruction is presented, which is suitable for particle trajectories in an homogenous magnetic field (or 0 T) or Cherenkov rings. The method is based on fuzzy c-regression models, where the number of the models stands for the track number. The approximate number of tracks and a rough evaluation of the track parameters given by Hough transform are used to initiate the fuzzy c-regression models. The technique effectively represents a merger between track candidates finding and parameters fitting. The performance of this approach is tested by some simulated data under various scenarios. Results show that this technique is robust and could provide very accurate results efficiently.

2015, 39(3): 036202. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/3/036202

**Abstract:**

To meet the measurement demands on small-mass radiocarbon (carbon content at 10

^{-6}g level) which are becoming increasingly significant, Xi'an-AMS has made improvements to the existing method of sample loading and has upgraded the Cs sputter ion source from the original SO-110 model. In order to study the feasibility of small-mass samples in Xi'an-AMS and evaluate the radiocarbon sample preparation ability using existing routine systems of H

_{2}/Fe and Zn/Fe, the small-mass samples prepared by four different methods are tested. They are the mass division method, mass dilution method, H

_{2}/Fe reduction method and Zn/Fe reduction method. The results show that carbon mass above 25 μg can be prepared using the existing Zn/Fe system, but no less than 100 μg is required using the existing H

_{2}/Fe system, which can be improved. This indicates Xi'an-AMS are now able to analyze small-mass radiocarbon samples.

2015, 39(3): 037001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/3/037001

**Abstract:**

X-band accelerators for multi-bunches are a new way to produce high luminosity and energy efficiency bunches. The smaller the size and the more bunches, the more severe is the wakefield in the X-band accelerators, unless some means of strongly suppressing the transverse wakefield is adopted in the design of the accelerating structure. Here, the derivation of the wakefield function of the double circuit model and its application to the designed accelerator structure have been demonstrated.

2015, 39(3): 037002. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/3/037002

**Abstract:**

In Indus-2, by optimizing the position of the magnetic elements, using the simulated annealing algorithm, at different locations in the ring with their field errors, the effects on beam parameters have been minimized. Closed orbit distortion and beta beat are considerably reduced by optimizing the dipole and quadrupole magnets positions in the ring. For the Indus-2 storage ring, sextupole optimization gives insignificant improvement in dynamic aperture with chromaticity-correcting sextupoles. The magnets have been placed in the ring with the optimized sequence and storage of the beam has been achieved at injection energy without energizing any corrector magnets. Magnet sorting has led to the easy beam current accumulation and the measurement of parameters such as closed orbit distortion, beta function, dispersion, dynamic aperture etc.

2015, 39(3): 037003. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/3/037003

**Abstract:**

Both longitudinal and transverse coupling impedance for some critical components need to be measured for accelerator design. The twin wires method is widely used to measure longitudinal and transverse impedance on the bench. A mode error is induced when the twin wires method is used with a two-port network analyzer. Here, the mode error is analyzed theoretically and an example analysis is given. Moreover, the mode error in the measurement is a few percent when a hybrid with no less than 25 dB isolation and a splitter with no less than 20 dB magnitude error are used.

2015, 39(3): 037004. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/3/037004

**Abstract:**

In order to update the beam power from 100 kW to 500 kW in the China Spallation neutron source (CSNS) Phase Ⅱ, one of the important measures is to replace the 80 long beam transport line between the present 80 MeV linac injector and the rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) to another kind of acceleration structure. In this paper, we proposed a scheme based on 324 MHz double-spoke superconducting cavities. Unlike the superconducting elliptical cavity and normal conducting coupled cavity linac (CCL) structure, the double-spoke cavity belongs to the TE mode structure and has a smaller transverse dimension compared with that of the TH mode one. It can work at base frequency as the drift tube Linac (DTL) section, so that the cost and complexity of the RF system will be much decreased, and the behaviors of the beam dynamics are also improved significantly because of the low charge density and larger longitudinal acceptance. Furthermore, because of the relatively longer interactive length between the charged particle and the electromagnetic field per cell, it needs relatively less cell numbers and it has larger velocity acceptance compared with the double frequency TH structures. The superconducting section consists of 14 periods, each of which includes 3 superconducting cavities encapsulated in one cryomodule and a doublet in room temperate. The general considerations on cavity and beam dynamics design are discussed and the main results are presented.

2015, 39(3): 037005. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/3/037005

**Abstract:**

For reaching a small emittance in a modern light source, triple bend achromats (TBA), theoretical minimum emittance (TME) and even multiple bend achromats (MBA) have been considered. This paper derived the necessary condition for achieving minimum emittance in TBA and MBA theoretically, where the bending angle of inner dipoles has a factor of 3

^{1/3}bigger than that of the outer dipoles. Here, we also calculated the conditions attaining the minimum emittance of TBA related to phase advance in some special cases with a pure mathematics method. These results may give some directions on lattice design.

2015, 39(3): 038001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/3/038001

**Abstract:**

With high concentrations of hemoglobin (Hb) in red blood cells, self-interactions among these molecules could increase the propensities of their polymerization and aggregation. In the present work, high concentration Hb in solution and red blood cells were analyzed by small-angle X-ray scattering. Calculation of the effective structure factor indicates that the interaction of Hb molecules is the same when they are crowded together in both the cell and physiological saline. The Hb molecules stay individual without the formation of aggregates and clusters in cells.

2015, 39(3): 038101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/3/038101

**Abstract:**

Microbunching instability usually exists in the linear accelerator (linac) of a free electron laser (FEL) facility. If it is not controlled effectively, the beam quality will be damaged seriously and the machine will not operate properly. In the electron linac of a soft X-ray FEL device, because the electron energy is not very high, the problem can become even more serious. As a typical example, the microbunching instability in the linac of the proposed Shanghai Soft X-ray Free Electron Laser facility (SXFEL) is investigated in detail by means of both analytical formulae and simulation tools. In the study, a new mechanism introducing random noise into the beam current profile as the beam passes through a chicane-type bunch compressor is proposed. The higher-order modes that appear in the simulations suggest that further improvement of the current theoretical model of the instability is needed.

2015, 39(3): 038201. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/3/038201

**Abstract:**

In a scintillation detector, scintillation crystals are typically made into a 2-dimensional modular array. The location of incident gamma-ray needs be calibrated due to spatial response nonlinearity. Generally, position histograms——the characteristic flood response of scintillation detectors-are used for position calibration. In this paper, a position calibration method based on a crystal position lookup table which maps the inaccurate location calculated by Anger logic to the exact hitting crystal position has been proposed. Firstly, the position histogram is preprocessed, such as noise reduction and image enhancement. Then the processed position histogram is segmented into disconnected regions, and crystal marking points are labeled by finding the centroids of regions. Finally, crystal boundaries are determined and the crystal position lookup table is generated. The scheme is evaluated by the whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) scanner and breast dedicated single photon emission computed tomography scanner developed by the Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The results demonstrate that the algorithm is accurate, efficient, robust and applicable to any configurations of scintillation detector.

2015, 39(3): 038202. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/3/038202

**Abstract:**

X-ray cone-beam computed tomography (CT) has such notable features as high efficiency and precision, and is widely used in the fields of medical imaging and industrial non-destructive testing, but the inherent imaging degradation reduces the quality of CT images. Aimed at the problems of projection image degradation and restoration in cone-beam CT, a point spread function (PSF) modeling method is proposed first. The general PSF model of cone-beam CT is established, and based on it, the PSF under arbitrary scanning conditions can be calculated directly for projection image restoration without the additional measurement, which greatly improved the application convenience of cone-beam CT. Secondly, a projection image restoration algorithm based on pre-filtering and pre-segmentation is proposed, which can make the edge contours in projection images and slice images clearer after restoration, and control the noise in the equivalent level to the original images. Finally, the experiments verified the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methods.

2015, 39(3): 038203. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/3/038203

**Abstract:**

X-ray Fluorescence Computed Tomography (XFCT) is a widely-used experimental technique for investigating the spatial distribution of elements in a sample. However, image reconstruction for this technique is more difficult than for transmission tomography, one problem being self-absorption. In this work, we make use of known quantities and unknown density of elements of interest to express unknown attenuation maps. The attenuation maps are added to the contribution value of the pixel in the Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximization (MLEM) reconstruction method. Results indicate that the relative error is less than 14.1%, which shows that this method can effectively correct L-shell XFCT.

2015, 39(3): 039001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/3/039001

**Abstract:**

All commercial electron spin polarimeters work in single channel mode, which is the bottleneck of researches by spin-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. By adopting the time inversion antisymmetry of the magnetic field, we developed a multichannel spin polarimeter based on normal incident very low energy electron diffraction (VLEED). The key point to achieve the multi-channel measurements is the spatial resolution of the electron optics. The test of the electron optics shows that the designed spatial resolution can be achieved and an image type spin polarimeter with 100 times 100, totally ten thousand channels is possible to be realized.

Original research articles, Ietters and reviews Covering theory and experiments in the fieids of

- Particle physics
- Nuclear physics
- Particle and nuclear astrophysics
- Cosmology

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