2016 Vol. 40, No. 8
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Recently, both ATLAS and CMS collaborations at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) announced their observations of an excess of diphoton events around the invariant mass of 750 GeV with a local significance of 3.6σ and 2.6σ, respectively. In this paper, we interpret the diphoton excess as the on-shell production of a real singlet scalar in the pp→S→γγ channel. To accommodate the observed production rate, we further introduce a vector-like fermion F, which carries both color and electric charges. The viable regions of model parameters are explored for this simple extension of the Standard Model (SM). Moreover, we revisit the problem of electroweak vacuum stability in the same scenario, and find that the requirement for the electroweak vacuum stability up to high energy scales imposes serious constraints on the Yukawa coupling of the vector-like fermion and the quartic couplings of the SM Higgs boson and the new singlet scalar. Consequently, a successful explanation for the diphoton excess and the absolute stability of electroweak vacuum cannot be achieved simultaneously in this economical setup.
We propose a novel type of interpolating field operator, which manifests the hybrid-like configuration that the charm quark-antiquark pair recoils against gluonic degrees of freedom. A heavy vector charmonium-like state with a mass of 4.33(2)GeV is disentangled from the conventional charmonium states in the quenched approximation. This state has affinity for the hybrid-like operators but couples less to the relevant quark bilinear operator. We also try to extract its leptonic decay constant and give a tentative upper limit that it is less than one tenth of that of J/ψ, which corresponds to a leptonic decay width about dozens of eV. The connection of this state with X(4260) is also discussed.
We investigate the exact results for circular 1/4 and 1/2 BPS Wilson loops in the d=3 N=4 super Chern-Simons-matter theory that could be obtained by orbifolding Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena (ABJM) theory. The partition function of the N=4 orbifold ABJM theory has been computed previously in the literature. In this paper, we re-derive it using a slightly different method. We calculate the vacuum expectation values of the circular 1/4 BPS Wilson loops in fundamental representation and of circular 1/2 BPS Wilson loops in arbitrary representations. We use both the saddle point approach and Fermi gas approach. The results for Wilson loops are in accord with the available gravity results.
In this paper, the BF theory method is applied to the nonrotating isolated horizons in Lovelock theory. The final entropy matches the Wald entropy formula for this theory. We also confirm the conclusion obtained by Bodendorfer et al. that the entropy is related to the flux operator rather than the area operator in general diffeomorphic-invariant theory.
We are aiming to study the J/ψ→p η' decay in an isobar model and the effective Lagrangian approach on the basis of the coupling constants extracted from the πN→η'N reaction. After a careful exploration of the contributions of the S11(1535), P11(1710), P13(1900), S11(2090) and P11(2100) resonances, we conclude that either a subthreshold resonance or a broad P-wave state in the near threshold range seems to be indispensable to describe the present data of the πN→η'N. Furthermore, at least one broad resonance above η'N threshold is preferred. With this detailed analysis, we give the invariant mass spectrum and Dalitz plot of the J/ψ→p η' decay for the purpose of assisting the future detailed partial wave analysis. It is found that the J/ψ→p η' data are useful for disentangling the above or below threshold resonant contribution, though it still further needs the differential cross section data of πN→η'N to realize some of the resonant and non-resonant contribution.
Based on tilted axis cranking relativistic mean-field theory within point-coupling interaction PC-PK1, the rotational structure and the characteristic features of antimagnetic rotation for ΔI=2 bands in 108,110In are studied. Tilted axis cranking relativistic mean-field calculations reproduce the experimental energy spectrum well and are in agreement with the experimental I~ω plot, although the calculated spin overestimates the experimental values. In addition, the two-shears-like mechanism in candidate antimagnetic rotation bands is clearly illustrated and the contributions from two-shears-like orbits, neutron (gd) orbits above Z=50 shell and Z=50,N=50 core are investigated microscopically. The predicted B(E2), dynamic moment of inertia ℑ(2), deformation parameters β and γ, and ℑ(2)/B(E2) ratios in tilted axis cranking relativistic mean-field calculations are discussed and the characteristic features of antimagnetic rotation for the bands before and after alignment are shown.
A new value for the emission probability of 137.144 keV γ-rays from 186gRe decay is recommended to be (9.47± 0.03)/%. Using this value the measured cross sections for 187Re(n,2n)186mRe and 187Re(n,2n)186gRe reactions around 14 MeV are analyzed, and the cross section for 187Re(n,2n)186m + gRe reaction at 14.8 MeV is (2213± 116) mb. The UNF code was adopted to calculate the cross sections for the 187Re(n,2n)186m + gRe reaction below 20 MeV, fitting to the value (2213± 116) mb at 14.8 MeV using a set of optimum neutron optical potential parameters which were obtained based on the relevant experimental data of rhenium. The isomeric cross section ratio for the 187Re(n,2n)186m,gRe reaction was analyzed using the V-H method based on nuclear statistical theory. Combining these calculated results, the excitation functions for the 187Re(n,2n)186mRe and 187Re(n,2n)186gRe reactions were obtained. The obtained results are in good agreement with the available experimental data.
It has been proposed that electric fields may lead to chiral separation in quark-gluon plasma (QGP). This is called the chiral electric separation effect. The strong electromagnetic field and the QCD vacuum can both be completely produced in off-central nuclear-nuclear collision. We use the Woods-Saxon nucleon distribution to calculate the electric field distributions of off-central collisions. The chiral electric field spatial distribution at Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energy regions are systematically studied in this paper. The dependence of the electric field produced by the thermal quark in the central position with different impact parameters on the proper time with different collision energies in the RHIC and LHC energy regions are studied in this paper.
The power spectrum of primordial tensor perturbations Pt increases rapidly in the high frequency region if the spectral index nt>0. It is shown that the amplitude of relic gravitational waves ht(5×109 Hz) varies from 10-36 to 10-25 while nt varies from -6.25×10-3 to 0.87. A high frequency gravitational wave detector proposed by F.-Y. Li detects gravitational waves through observing the perturbed photon flux that is generated by interaction between relic gravitational waves and electromagnetic field. It is shown that the perturbative photon flux Nx1 (5×109 Hz) varies from 1.40×10-4 s-1 to 2.85×107 s-1 while nt varies from -6.25× 10-3 to 0.87. Correspondingly, the ratio of the transverse perturbative photon flux Nx1 to the background photon flux varies from 10-28 to 10-16.
Gas electron multiplier (GEM) detectors have been used in cosmic muon scattering tomography and neutron imaging over the last decade. In this work, a triple GEM device with an effective readout area of 10 cm × 10 cm is developed, and a method of discriminating between cosmic muons and X-rays based on rise time is tested. The energy resolution of the GEM detector is tested by 55Fe ray source to prove the GEM detector has a good performance. Analysis of the complete signal-cycles allows us to get the rise time and pulse heights. The experiment result indicates that cosmic muons and X-rays can be discriminated with an appropriate rise time threshold.
A mini-orange spectrometer used for in-beam measurements of internal conversion electrons, consisting of a Si(Li) detector and different sets of SmO5 permanent magnets for filtering and transporting the conversion electrons to the Si(Li) detector, has been developed at the China Institute of Atomic Energy. The working principles and configuration of the mini-orange spectrometer are described. The performance of the setup is illustrated by measured singles conversion electron spectra using the mini-orange spectrometer.
To fulfill the requirements for testing the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) of the electromagnetic detector at the Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO), a multi-functional PMT test bench with a two-dimensional scanning system has been developed. With this 2D scanning system, 16 PMTs can be scanned simultaneously for characteristics tests, including uniformity, cathode transit time difference, single photo-electron spectrum, gain vs. high voltage, linear behavior and dark noise. The programmable hardware and intelligent software of the test bench make it convenient to use and provide reliable results. The test methods are described in detail and primary results are presented.
A resistive anode for two-dimensional imaging detectors, which consists of a series of high resistivity pads surrounded by low resistivity strips, can provide good spatial resolution while reducing the number of electronics channels required. The optimization of this kind of anode has been studied by both numerical simulations and experimental tests. It is found that to obtain good detector performance, the resistance ratio of the pads to the strips should be larger than 5, the nonuniformity of the pad surface resistivity should be less than 20\%, a smaller pad width leads to a smaller spatial resolution, and when the pad width is 6 mm, the spatial resolution (σ) can reach about 105 μm. Based on the study results, a 2-D GEM detector prototype with optimized resistive anode is constructed and a good imaging performance is achieved.
A scalable readout system (SRS) is designed to provide a general solution for different micro-pattern gas detectors in various applications. The system mainly consists of three kinds of modules: the ASIC card, the adapter card and the front-end card (FEC). The ASIC cards, mounted with particular ASIC chips, are designed for receiving detector signals. The adapter card is in charge of digitizing the output signals from several ASIC cards. The FEC, edged-mounted with the adapter, has field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based reconfigurable logic and I/O interfaces, allowing users to choose different ASIC cards and adapters for different experiments, which expands the system to various applications. The FEC transfers data through Gigabit Ethernet protocol realized by a TCP processor (SiTCP) IP core in FPGA. By assembling a flexible number of FECs in parallel through Gigabit Ethernet, the readout system can be tailored to specific sizes to adapt to the experiment scales and readout requirements. In this paper, two kinds of multi-channel ASIC chip, VA140 and AGET, are applied to verify the scalability of this SRS architecture. Based on this VA140 or AGET SRS, one FEC covers 8 ASIC (VA140) cards handling 512 detector channels, or 4 ASIC (AGET) cards handling 256 detector channels, respectively. More FECs can be assembled in crates to handle thousands of detector channels.
A trigger system was designed for the external target experiment in the Cooling Storage Ring (CSR) of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). Considering that different detectors are scattered over a large area, the trigger system is designed based on a master-slave structure and fiber-based serial data transmission technique. The trigger logic is organized in hierarchies, and flexible reconfiguration of the trigger function is achieved based on command register access or overall field-programmable gate array (FPGA) logic on-line reconfiguration controlled by remote computers. We also conducted tests to confirm the function of the trigger electronics, and the results indicate that this trigger system works well.
The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is a multi-purpose neutrino experiment designed to measure the neutrino mass hierarchy using a central detector (CD), which contains 20 kton liquid scintillator (LS) surrounded by about 17000 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Due to the large fiducial volume and huge number of PMTs, the simulation of a muon particle passing through the CD with the Geant4 toolkit becomes an extremely computation-intensive task. This paper presents a fast simulation implementation using a so-called voxel method: for scintillation photons generated in a certain LS voxel, the PMT's response is produced beforehand with Geant4 and then introduced into the simulation at runtime. This parameterisation method successfully speeds up the most CPU consuming process, the optical photon's propagation in the LS, by a factor of 50. In the paper, the comparison of physics performance between fast and full simulation is also given.
The DArk Matter Particle Explorer is an orbital indirect dark matter search experiment which measures the spectra of photons, electrons and positrons originating from deep space. The electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL), made of bismuth germinate (BGO), is one of the key sub-detectors of DAMPE, and is designed for energy measurement with a large dynamic range from 5 GeV to 10 TeV. In this paper, methods for energy correction are discussed, in order to reconstruct the primary energy of the incident electrons. Different methods are chosen for the appropriate energy ranges. The correction results of Geant4 simulation and beam test data (at CERN) are presented.
This paper introduces a multiscale maximum entropy (MSME) algorithm for image restoration of the Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT), which is a collimated scan X-ray satellite mainly devoted to a sensitive all-sky survey and pointed observations in the 1-250 keV range. The novelty of the MSME method is to use wavelet decomposition and multiresolution support to control noise amplification at different scales. Our work is focused on the application and modification of this method to restore diffuse sources detected by HXMT scanning observations. An improved method, the ensemble multiscale maximum entropy (EMSME) algorithm, is proposed to alleviate the problem of mode mixing exiting in MSME. Simulations have been performed on the detection of the diffuse source Cen A by HXMT in all-sky survey mode. The results show that the MSME method is adapted to the deconvolution task of HXMT for diffuse source detection and the improved method could suppress noise and improve the correlation and signal-to-noise ratio, thus proving itself a better algorithm for image restoration. Through one all-sky survey, HXMT could reach a capacity of detecting a diffuse source with maximum differential flux of 0.5 mCrab.
In this work, a new neutron and γ(n/γ) discrimination method based on an Elman Neural Network (ENN) is proposed to improve the discrimination performance of liquid scintillator (LS) detectors. Neutron and γ data were acquired from an EJ-335 LS detector, which was exposed in a 241Am-9Be radiation field. Neutron and γ events were discriminated using two methods of artificial neural network including the ENN and a typical Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) as a control. The results show that the two methods have different n/γ discrimination performances. Compared to the BPNN, the ENN provides an improved of Figure of Merit (FOM) in n/γ discrimination. The FOM increases from 0.907 ± 0.034 to 0.953 ± 0.037 by using the new method of the ENN. The proposed n/γ discrimination method based on ENN provides a new choice of pulse shape discrimination in neutron detection.
In flash-radiography experiments, the quality of the acquired image strongly depends on the focal size of the X-ray source spot. A variety of techniques based on imaging of the pinhole, the slit and the rollbar are adopted to measure the focal spot size of the Dragon-I linear induction accelerator. The image of the pinhole provides a two-dimensional distribution of the X-ray spot, while those of the slit and the rollbar give a line-spread distribution and an edge-spread distribution, respectively. The spot size characterized by the full-width at half-maximum and that characterized by the LANL definition are calculated for comparison.
The Circular Electron-Positron Collider (CEPC) is one of the largest projects planned for high energy physics in China. It would serve first as a Higgs factory and then upgrade to a hadron collider. In this paper we give the 50 km and 100 km design for both single ring and double ring schemes, including Z boson, W boson and Higgs boson, by using an optimized method. Also, we give the potential of CEPC running at the Z and W poles. We analyse the relationship of luminosity with circumference and filling factor, which gives a way to evaluate the choice of geometry, and compare the nominal performances of CEPC-SPPC, LHC and FCC.
Cavity combiners have been put forward for high power combining due to their advantages of larger combining ability, variable input channels and less power loss. For a high power cavity combiner, it is better to keep the power loss ratio in a reasonable range, because large power loss would lead to strict requirements on the cooling system. A combiner with variable input channels is convenient for outputting different power levels according to practical demands. In this paper, a method for designing a variable-channel high-power cavity combiner is proposed, based on the relation between input and output coupling coefficients obtained by analyzing the equivalent circuit of the cavity combiner. This method can put the designed cavity combiner in a matching state and keep its power loss rate in a reasonable range as the number of input channels changes. As an example, a cavity combiner with 500 MHz and variable input channels from 16 to 64 is designed, and the simulation results show that our proposed method is feasible.
A 325 MHz β=0.14 superconducting half-wave resonator prototype has been developed at the Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing, which can be applied in the low energy section of continuous wave high current proton linear accelerators. The electromagnetic design, multipacting simulation, mechanical optimization and fabrication are introduced in detail. Test results at room temperature and 4.2 K, and a comparison between measured and simulated results, are analyzed in this paper.
A new accelerator complex, HIAF (the High Intensity Heavy Ion Accelerator Facility), has been approved in China. It is designed to provide intense primary and radioactive ion beams for research in high energy density physics, nuclear physics, atomic physics as well as other applications. In order to achieve a high intensity of up to 5×1011 ppp 238U34+, the Compression Ring (CRing) needs to stack more than 5 bunches transferred from the Booster Ring (BRing). However, the normal bucket to bucket injection scheme can only achieve an intensity gain of 2, so an injection method, fixed barrier bucket (BB) supported by electron cooling, is proposed. To suppress the severe space charge effect during the stacking process, off-alignment is adopted in the cooler to control the transverse emittance. In this paper, simulation and optimization with the BETACOOL program are presented.
A novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experimental scheme, called wideband continuous wave NMR (WB-CW-NMR), is presented in this article. This experimental scheme has promising applications in pulsed magnetic fields, and can dramatically improve the utilization of the pulsed field. The feasibility of WB-CW-NMR scheme is verified by numerically solving modified Bloch equations. In the numerical simulation, the applied magnetic field is a pulsed magnetic field up to 80 T, and the wideband continuous radio frequency (RF) excitation is a band-limited (0.68-3.40 GHz) white noise. Furthermore, the influences of some experimental parameters, such as relaxation time, applied magnetic field strength and wideband continuous RF power, on the WB-CW-NMR signal are analyzed briefly. Finally, a multi-channel system framework for transmitting and receiving ultra wideband signals is proposed, and the basic requirements of this experimental system are discussed. Meanwhile, the amplitude of the NMR signal, the level of noise and RF interference in WB-CW-NMR experiments are estimated, and a preliminary adaptive cancellation plan is given for detecting WB-CW-NMR signal from large background interference.
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