2016 Vol. 40, No. 3

Constraining the UT angle γ by CP violation parameters in B0→π+π-*
Qin Qin, Zhi-Tian Zou, Ying Li, Cai-Dian Lü
2016, 40(3): 031001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/3/031001
We calculate the tree and penguin amplitudes in the B0→π+π- decay channel employing the perturbative QCD factorization approach. Using the amplitudes as input with the theoretical uncertainties sufficiently considered, we constrain the UT angle γ to 53°≤γ≤70°, from the measurements of the CP violation parameters Cπ+π- and Sπ+π- in B0→π+π-. The U-spin breaking effect between B0→π+π- and BS0→K+K- is estimated to be around 30%.
Particles and Fields
Physics cross sections and event generation of e+e- annihilations at the CEPC
Xin Mo, Gang Li, Man-Qi Ruan, Xin-Chou Lou
2016, 40(3): 033001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/3/033001
The cross sections of the Higgs production and the corresponding backgrounds of e+e- annihilations at the CEPC (Circular Electron and Positron Collider) are calculated by a Monte-Carlo method, and the beamstrahlung effect at the CEPC is carefully investigated. The numerical results and the expected number of events for the CEPC are provided.
Disentangling the spin-parity of a resonance via the gold-plated decay mode
Tanmoy Modak, Dibyakrupa Sahoo, Rahul Sinha, Hai-Yang Cheng, Tzu-Chiang Yuan
2016, 40(3): 033002. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/3/033002
Searching for new resonances and finding out their properties is an essential part of any existing or future particle physics experiment. The nature of a new resonance is characterized by its spin, charge conjugation, parity, and its couplings with the existing particles of the Standard Model. If a new resonance is found in the four lepton final state produced via two intermediate Z bosons, the resonance could be a new heavy scalar or a Z' boson or even a higher spin particle. In such cases a step by step methodology as enunciated in this paper can be followed to determine the spin, parity and the coupling to two Z bosons of the parent particles, in a fully model-independent way. In our approach we show how three uni-angular distributions and a few experimentally measurable observables can conclusively tell us about the spin, parity as well as the couplings of the new resonance to two Z bosons. We have performed a numerical analysis to validate our approach and showed how the uni-angular observables can be used to disentangle the spin parity as well as the coupling of the resonance.
Potential of geo-neutrino measurements at JUNO
Ran Han, Yu-Feng Li, Liang Zhan, William F McDonough, Jun Cao, Livia Ludhova
2016, 40(3): 033003. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/3/033003
The flux of geoneutrinos at any point on the Earth is a function of the abundance and distribution of radioactive elements within our planet. This flux has been successfully detected by the 1-kt KamLAND and 0.3-kt Borexino detectors, with these measurements being limited by their low statistics. The planned 20-kt JUNO detector will provide an exciting opportunity to obtain a high statistics measurement, which will provide data to address several questions of geological importance. This paper presents the JUNO detector design concept, the expected geo-neutrino signal and corresponding backgrounds. The precision level of geo-neutrino measurements at JUNO is obtained with the standard least-squares method. The potential of the Th/U ratio and mantle measurements is also discussed.
Interference effects on Higgs mass measurement in e+e-→H(γγ)Z at CEPC
Guang-Zhi Xu, Gang Li, Yi-Jie Li, Kui-Yong Liu, Yu-Jie Zhang
2016, 40(3): 033101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/3/033101
A high luminosity Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) as a Higgs Factory will be helpful for precision measurements of the Higgs mass. The signal-background interference effect is carefully studied for the Higgs diphoton decay mode in associated Z boson production at future e+e- colliders at energy 246 GeV. The mass shifts go up from about 20 MeV to 50 MeV for the experimental mass resolution ranging from 0.8 GeV to 2 GeV.
Update on two-zero textures of the Majorana neutrino mass matrix in light of recent T2K, Super-Kamiokande and NOvA results
Shun Zhou
2016, 40(3): 033102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/3/033102
The latest results from atmospheric and accelerator neutrino experiments indicate that the normal neutrino mass ordering m1 < m2 < m3, a maximal leptonic CP-violating phase δ = 270° and the second octant of neutrino mixing angle θ23 > 45° are favored. In light of new experimental results, we update previous phenomenological studies on two-zero textures of the Majorana neutrino mass matrix Mv, in the flavor basis where the charged-lepton mass matrix Ml is diagonal. When the 1σ ranges of neutrino mixing parameters are taken into account, only four (i.e., A1, 2 and B2,4) among seven two-zero patterns of Mv show the aforementioned features of neutrino mass spectrum, mixing angle θ23 and CP-violating phase δ, and thus are compatible with the latest neutrino oscillation data. The correlative relations among neutrino masses and mixing parameters have been derived analytically for these four patterns, and the allowed regions of neutrino mixing angles and the CP-violating phase are also given. Possible realizations of four viable two-zero textures via non-Abelian discrete flavor symmetries are discussed.
Efficient numerical evaluation of Feynman integrals
Zhao Li, Jian Wang, Qi-Shu Yan, Xiaoran Zhao
2016, 40(3): 033103. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/3/033103
Feynman loop integrals are a key ingredient for the calculation of higher order radiation effects, and are responsible for reliable and accurate theoretical prediction. We improve the efficiency of numerical integration in sector decomposition by implementing a quasi-Monte Carlo method associated with the CUDA/GPU technique. For demonstration we present the results of several Feynman integrals up to two loops in both Euclidean and physical kinematic regions in comparison with those obtained from FIESTA3. It is shown that both planar and non-planar two-loop master integrals in the physical kinematic region can be evaluated in less than half a minute with O(10-3) accuracy, which makes the direct numerical approach viable for precise investigation of higher order effects in multi-loop processes, e.g. the next-to-leading order QCD effect in Higgs pair production via gluon fusion with a finite top quark mass.
Nuclear Physics
Theoretical study on neutron distribution of 208Pb by parity-violating electron scattering
Jian Liu, Cun Zhang, Zhong-Zhou Ren, Chang Xu
2016, 40(3): 034101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/3/034101
The precise determination of neutron distribution has important implications for both nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics. The purpose of this paper is to study the characteristics of neutron distribution of 208Pb by parity-violating electron scattering (PVS). Parity-violating asymmetries of 208Pb with different types of neutron skins are systematically calculated and compared with the experimental data of PREx. The results indicate that the PVS experiments are very sensitive to the nuclear neutron distributions. From further PVS measurements, detailed information on nuclear neutron distributions can be extracted.
Folding model calculations for 6He+12C elastic scattering
Awad A. Ibraheem
2016, 40(3): 034102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/3/034102
In the framework of the double folding model, we used the α+2n and di-triton configurations for the nuclear matter density of the 6He nucleus to generate the real part of the optical potential for the system 6He+12C. As an alternative, we also use the high energy approximation to generate the optical potential for the same system. The derived potentials are employed to analyze the elastic scattering differential cross section at energies of 38.3, 41.6 and 82.3 MeV/u. For the imaginary part of the potential we adopt the squared Woods-Saxon form. The obtained results are compared with the corresponding measured data as well as with available results in the literature. The calculated total reaction cross sections are investigated and compared with the optical limit Glauber model description.
Study of entropy in intermediate-energy heavy ion collisions
Xiao-Ji Zhang, Wen-Jun Guo, Xian-Jie Li, Kuo Wang
2016, 40(3): 034103. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/3/034103
Using the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model, the entropy of an intermediate-energy heavy ion collision system after the reaction and the number of deuteronlike and protonlike particles produced in the collision is calculated. In the collision, different parameters are used and the mass number used here is from 40 to 93 at incident energy from 150 MeV to 1050 MeV. We build a new model in which the density distribution of the reaction product is used to calculate the size of the entropy. The entropy calculated with this model is in good agreement with experimental values. Our data reveals that with the increase of the neutron-proton ratio and impact parameter, the entropy of the reaction system decreases, and it increases with the increase of system mass and reaction energy.
Strange particle production in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions in the RHIC BES energy region
Cong-Cong Zhang, Xian-Bao Yuan, Sheng-Qin Feng, Zhong-Bao Yin
2016, 40(3): 034104. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/3/034104
The parton and hadron cascade model PACIAE is used to investigate strange particle production in Au + Au collisions at √s = 62.4 GeV in different centralities and at √s = 39, 11.5 and 7.7 GeV in the most central collision, respectively. It is shown that the transverse momentum distributions of strange particles by the PACIAE model fit the RHIC Beam Energy Scan experimental results well.
Pseudorapidity dependence of short-range correlations from a multi-phase transport model
Mei-Juan Wang, Gang Chen, Guo-Liang Ma, Yuan-Fang Wu
2016, 40(3): 034105. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/3/034105
Using a multi-phase transport model (AMPT) that includes both initial partonic and hadronic interactions, we study neighboring bin multiplicity correlations as a function of pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at √SNN = 7.7-62.4 GeV. It is observed that for √SNN < 19.6 GeV Au+Au collisions, the short-range correlations of final particles have a trough at central pseudorapidity, while for √SNN > 19.6 GeV AuAu collisions, the short-range correlations of final particles have a peak at central pseudorapidity. Our findings indicate that the pseudorapidity dependence of short-range correlations should contain some new physical information, and are not a simple result of the pseudorapidity distribution of final particles. The AMPT results with and without hadronic scattering are compared. It is found that hadron scattering can only increase the short-range correlations to some level, but is not responsible for the different correlation shapes for different energies. Further study shows that the different pseudorapidity dependence of short-range correlations are mainly due to partonic evolution and the following hadronization scheme.
Detectors, Related Electronics and Experimental Methods
Study of silicon pixel sensor for synchrotron radiation detection
Zhen-Jie Li, Yun-Cong Jia, Ling-Fei Hu, Peng Liu, Hua-Xiang Yin
2016, 40(3): 036001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/3/036001
The silicon pixel sensor (SPS) is one of the key components of hybrid pixel single-photon-counting detectors for synchrotron radiation X-ray detection (SRD). In this paper, the design, fabrication, and characterization of SPSs for single beam X-ray photon detection is reported. The designed pixel sensor is a p+-in-n structure with guard-ring structures operated in full-depletion mode and is fabricated on 4-inch, N type, 320 μupm thick, high-resistivity silicon wafers by a general Si planar process. To achieve high energy resolution of X-rays and obtain low dark current and high breakdown voltage as well as appropriate depletion voltage of the SPS, a series of technical optimizations of device structure and fabrication process are explored. With optimized device structure and fabrication process, excellent SPS characteristics with dark current of 2 nA/cm2, full depletion voltage <50 V and breakdown voltage >150 V are achieved. The fabricated SPSs are wire bonded to ASIC circuits and tested for the performance of X-ray response to the 1W2B synchrotron beam line of the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The measured S-curves for SRD demonstrate a high discrimination for different energy X-rays. The extracted energy resolution is high (<20% for X-ray photon energy >10 keV) and the linear properties between input photo energy and the equivalent generator amplitude are well established. It confirmed that the fabricated SPSs have a good energy linearity and high count rate with the optimized technologies. The technology is expected to have a promising application in the development of a large scale SRD system for the Beijing Advanced Photon Source.
The neutron texture diffractometer at the China Advanced Research Reactor
Mei-Juan Li, Xiao-Long Liu, Yun-Tao Liu, Geng-Fang Tian, Jian-Bo Gao, Zhou-Xiang Yu, Yu-Qing Li, Li-Qi Wu, Lin-Feng Yang, Kai Sun, Hong-Li Wang, J.R.Santisteban, Dong-Feng Chen
2016, 40(3): 036002. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/3/036002
The first neutron texture diffractometer in China has been built at the China Advanced Research Reactor, due to strong demand for texture measurement with neutrons from the domestic user community. This neutron texture diffractometer has high neutron intensity, moderate resolution and is mainly applied to study texture in commonly used industrial materials and engineering components. In this paper, the design and characteristics of this instrument are described. The results for calibration with neutrons and quantitative texture analysis of zirconium alloy plate are presented. The comparison of texture measurements with the results obtained in HIPPO at LANSCE and Kowari at ANSTO illustrates the reliability of the texture diffractometer.
Total ionizing dose effects of domestic SiGe HBTs under different dose rates
Mo-Han Liu, Wu Lu, Wu-Ying Ma, Xin Wang, Qi Guo, Cheng-Fa He, Ke Jiang, Xiao-Long Li, Ming-Zhu Xun
2016, 40(3): 036003. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/3/036003
The total ionizing radiation (TID) response of commercial NPN silicon germanium hetero-junction bipolar transistors (SiGe HBTs) produced domestically are investigated under dose rates of 800 mGy(Si)/s and 1.3 mGy(Si)/s with a Co-60 gamma irradiation source. The changes of transistor parameters such as Gummel characteristics, and excess base current before and after irradiation, are examined. The results of the experiments show that for the KT1151, the radiation damage is slightly different under the different dose rates after prolonged annealing, and shows a time dependent effect (TDE). For the KT9041, however, the degradations of low dose rate irradiation is higher than for the high dose rate, demonstrating that there is a potential enhanced low dose rate sensitivity (ELDRS) effect for the KT9041. The possible underlying physical mechanisms of the different dose rates responses induced by the gamma rays are discussed.
Dedicated 4πβ (LS)-γ (HPGe) digital coincidence system based on synchronous high-speed multichannel data acquisition
Ji-Feng Chen, Ke-Zhu Song, Jia-Cheng Liu
2016, 40(3): 036101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/3/036101
A dedicated 4πβ (LS)-γ (HPGe) digital coincidence system with five acquisition channels has been developed. Three ADC acquisition channels with an acquisition resolution of 8 bits and acquisition rate of 1 GSPS are utilized to collect the signals from three PMTs which are used to detect β decay, and two acquisition channels with an acquisition resolution of 16 bits and acquisition rate of 50 MSPS are utilized to collect the signals from high-purity germanium (HPGe), which is used to detect γ decay. In order to increase the accuracy of the coincidence system, all five acquisition channels are synchronous within 500 ps. The data collected by the five acquisition channels will be transmitted to the host PC through a PCI bus and saved as a file. Off-line software is utilized for the 4πβ (LS)-γ (HPGe) coincidence and data analysis as needed in practical applications. Tests of the system show that system can record pulse signals from 4πβ (LS)-γ (HPGe) synchronously for further coincidence calculation and the highest coincidence rate of the system is 20 K/s, which is sufficient for most applications. Compared with traditional coincidence modules like MAC3, the digital coincidence system has a higher flexibility of coincidence algorithm. In addition, due to the use of ADC, the structure of the coincidence system is simplified. This paper introduces the design of the hardware, the synchronization method and the test results of this system.
Monte Carlo simulation of prompt γ-ray spectra from depleted uranium under D-T neutron irradiation and electron recoil spectra in a liquid scintillator detector
Jian-Guo Qin, Cai-Feng Lai, Rong Liu, Tong-Hua Zhu, Xin-Wei Zhang, Bang-Jiao Ye
2016, 40(3): 036201. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/3/036201
To overcome the problem of inefficient computing time and unreliable results in MCNP5 calculation, a two-step method is adopted to calculate the energy deposition of prompt γ-rays in detectors for depleted uranium spherical shells under D-T neutron irradiation. In the first step, the γ-ray spectrum for energy below 7 MeV is calculated by MCNP5 code; secondly, the electron recoil spectrum in a BC501A liquid scintillator detector is simulated based on EGSnrc Monte Carlo Code with the γ-ray spectrum from the first step as input. The comparison of calculated results with experimental ones shows that the simulations agree well with experiment in the energy region 0.4-3 MeV for the prompt γ-ray spectrum and below 4 MeVee for the electron recoil spectrum. The reliability of the two-step method in this work is validated.
A new method of charged particle identification based on frequency spectrum analysis
Jin-Tao Zhu, Guo-Fu Liu, Jun Yang, Xiao-Liang Luo, Lei Zhang, Li-Feng Ji
2016, 40(3): 036202. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/3/036202
A new frequency domain method for charged particle identification, called Frequency Ratio Analysis (FRA), is proposed by analyzing the frequency spectra of proton pulses and alpha pulses acquired from a totally depleted Si detector. Identification performance of the FRA method is evaluated and compared with two time domain methods, the current pulse amplitude method and the second moment method. The results show that the FRA method is not only feasible and effective but also superior to the two time domain methods, as it achieves an obvious increase in value of the figure-of-merit (FOM).
Beam dynamics of the superconducting wiggler on the SSRF storage ring
Qing-Lei Zhang, Shun-Qiang Tian, Bo-Cheng Jiang, Jie-Ping Xu, Zhen-Tang Zhao
2016, 40(3): 037001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/3/037001
In the SSRF Phase-II beamline project, a superconducting wiggler (SW) will be installed in the electron storage ring. It may greatly impact on the beam dynamics due to the very high magnetic field. The emittance growth becomes a major problem, even after correction of the beam optics. A local achromatic lattice is studied, in order to combat the emittance growth and keep the performance of the SSRF storage ring as high as possible. Other effects of the SW are also simulated and optimized, including the beta beating, the tune shift, the dynamic aperture, and the field error effects.
RF modulation studies on an S band pulse compressor
Guan Shu, Feng-Li Zhao, Shi-Lun Pei, Ou-Zheng Xiao
2016, 40(3): 037002. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/3/037002
An S band SLED-type pulse compressor has been manufactured by the Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing, trying to reach 100 MW maximum input power, which means the output peak power is about 500 MW at the phase reversal time. To improve the reliability at very high power, amplitude modulation and phase modulation with flat-top output are considered, and RF modulation studies on the S-band SLED are presented in this paper. Furthermore, a method is developed using the CST Microwave Studio transient solver to simulate the time response of the pulse compressor, which can verify the modulation theory. In addition, the experimental setup was constructed and the flat-top output obtained in low power tests. Both amplitude modulation and phase modulation methods can give flat-top output, and the average power gain for both methods is almost the same.
Frequency tuning with RFQ temperature in China ADS Injector Ⅱ
Jing Wang, Jian-Long Huang, Xiao-Qi Zhang, Bin Zhang, Yuan He, Zhou-Li Zhang, Ai-Min Shi
2016, 40(3): 037003. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/3/037003
A 162.5 MHz four-vane radio frequency quadruple (RFQ) accelerator has been developed at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP) for Injector II of the China ADS linac. The RFQ will operate in continuous wave mode at 100 kW. For the designed 10 mA beam, the additional RF power dissipation will induce a very large reflection of power. A water-temperature controlling system will be used to reduce the power reflection by tuning the frequency of the RFQ. The tuning capability of the water temperature is studied under different configurations of cooling water. Simulations and experiment are compared in this paper. The experimental results agree well with simulation using ANSYS. This can be used as a reference to tune the RFQ in beam commissioning.
Calculation of hydrogen and helium concentrations for CSNS target
Dong-Dong Pan, Tai-Ran Liang, Wen Yin, Ze-En Yao
2016, 40(3): 037004. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/40/3/037004
The China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is driven by protons whose energies are about 1.6 GeV. At such high energies, the spallation neutrons lead to the formation of large amounts of helium, hydrogen and new heavier species in the form of transmutation products. These hydrogen, helium and transmutation products have a critical effect on the mechanical properties on the one hand and exacerbate the displacement radiation damage on the other hand. In this paper, the background hydrogen/helium concentrations and the maximum hydrogen/helium concentrations near cracks in a tungsten target for CSNS have been calculated at temperatures of 100℃ and 300℃ by applying a theoretical model. For the CSNS tungsten target plate, we find the maximum hydrogen concentration near the tips of cracks ranges from 3.0× 10-2-2×10-1, which exceeds the hydrogen background concentration by 1.2-1.8 times; the maximum helium concentration near the tips of cracks ranges from 3.0× 10-4-1.2×10-3, which exceeds the helium background concentration by 2-4 times; the maximum hydrogen/helium concentration increases with the increase of the transfer length across the surfaces of the target and it decreases with the increase of temperature.