2016 Vol. 40, No. 4
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The Ω baryons with JP=3/2±, 1/2± are studied on the lattice in the quenched approximation. Their mass levels are ordered as M3/2+<M3/2-≈M1/2-<M1/2+, as is expected from the constituent quark model. The mass values are also close to those of the four Ω states observed in experiments. We calculate the Bethe-Salpeter amplitudes of Ω(3/2+) and Ω(1/2+) and find there is a radial node for the Ω(1/2+) Bethe-Salpeter amplitude, which may imply that Ω(1/2+) is an orbital excitation of Ω baryons as a member of the(D, LNP)=(70, 02+) supermultiplet in the SU(6)⊗O(3) quark model description. Our results are helpful for identifying the quantum numbers of experimentally observed Ω states.
The last few years have been witness to a proliferation of new results concerning heavy exotic hadrons. Experimentally, many new signals have been discovered that could be pointing towards the existence of tetraquarks, pentaquarks, and other exotic configurations of quarks and gluons. Theoretically, advances in lattice field theory techniques place us at the cusp of understanding complex coupled-channel phenomena, modelling grows more sophisticated, and effective field theories are being applied to an ever greater range of situations. It is thus an opportune time to evaluate the status of the field. In the following, a series of high priority experimental and theoretical issues concerning heavy exotic hadrons is presented.
The D* 1(2420) and D '*(2600) interactions are studied in a one-boson-exchange model. Isovector bound state solutions with spin parity JP=1+ are found from the D* 1(2420) interaction, which may be related to the observed charged charmonium-like state Z(4430). There is no bound state solution found from the D '*(2600) interaction.
We classify the different phases by the "pole-zero mechanism" for a holographic fermionic system which contains a dipole coupling with strength p on a Q-lattice background. A complete phase structure in p space can be depicted in terms of Fermi liquid, non-Fermi liquid, Mott phase and pseudo-gap phase. In particular, we find that in general the region of the pseudo-gap phase in p space is suppressed when the Q-lattice background is dual to a deep insulating phase, while for an anisotropic background, we have an anisotropic region for the pseudo-gap phase in p space as well. In addition, we find that the duality between zeros and poles always exists regardless of whether or not the model is isotropic.
We establish a systematic algorithmic approach that generates new classes of solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell system in static spherically symmetric spacetime from well known uncharged solutions. A particular case is shown to satisfy all major physical features of a realistic charged star including the standard point-wise energy conditions of normal matter. The solution matches smoothly with the exterior Reissner-Nordström metric at the pressure free interface. The study, which is reported for a particular choice of gravitational potential, encourages similar approaches to study electrification of well known physically realistic uncharged models.
In some quantum gravity theories, a foamy structure of space-time may lead to Lorentz invariance violation(LIV). As the most energetic explosions in the Universe, gamma-ray bursts(GRBs) provide an effect way to probe quantum gravity effects. In this paper, we use the continuous spectra of 20 short GRBs detected by the Swift satellite to give a conservative lower limit of quantum gravity energy scale MQG. Due to the LIV effect, photons with different energy have different velocities. This will lead to the delayed arrival of high energy photons relative to low energy ones. Based on the fact that the LIV-induced time delay cannot be longer than the duration of a GRB, we present the most conservative estimate of the quantum gravity energy scales from 20 short GRBs. The strictest constraint, MQG>5.05×1014 GeV in the linearly corrected case, is from GRB 140622A. Our constraint on MQG, although not as tight as previous results, is the safest and most reliable so far.
In this study, we research a higher dimensional flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker(FRW) universe in Barber's second theory when strange quark matter(SQM) and normal matter(NM) are attached to the string cloud and domain walls. We obtain zero string tension density for this model. We obtain dust quark matter solutions. This result agrees with Kiran and Reddy, Krori et al, Sahoo and Mishra and Reddy. In our solutions the quark matter transforms to other particles over time. We also obtain two different solutions for domain walls with quark and normal matters by using a deceleration parameter. Also, the features of the obtained solutions are discussed and some physical and kinematical quantities are generalized and discussed. Our results are consistent with Yilmaz, Adcox et al and Back et al in four and five dimensions.
The non-uniformity effect of the inter-foil distance has been studied using a gaseous electron multiplication(GEM) detector with sensitive area of 50mm×50mm. A gradient of the inter-foil distance is introduced by using spacers with different heights at the two ends of the foil gap. While the cluster size and the intrinsic spatial resolution show insignificant dependence on the inter-foil distance, the gain exhibits an approximately linear dependence on the inter-foil distance. From the slope, a quantitative relationship between the change of the inter-foil distance and the change of the gain is derived, which can be used as a method to evaluate the non-uniformity of the foil gap in the application of large-area GEM detectors.
A new Digital Pulse Processing(DPP) module has been developed, based on a domino ring sampler version 4 chip(DRS4), with good time resolution for LaBr3 detectors, and different digital timing analysis methods for processing the raw detector signals are reported. The module, composed of an eight channel DRS4 chip, was used as the readout electronics and acquisition system to process the output signals from XP20D0 photomultiplier tubes(PMTs). Two PMTs were coupled with LaBr3 scintillators and placed on opposite sides of a radioactive positron 22Na source for 511 keV γ-ray tests. By analyzing the raw data acquired by the module, the best coincidence timing resolution is about 194.7 ps(FWHM), obtained by the digital constant fraction discrimination(dCFD) method, which is better than other digital methods and analysis methods based on conventional analog systems which have been tested. The results indicate that it is a promising approach to better localize the positron annihilation in positron emission tomography(PET) with time of flight(TOF), as well as for scintillation timing measurement, such as in TOF-ΔE and TOF-E systems for particle identification, with picosecond accuracy timing measurement. Furthermore, this module is more simple and convenient than other systems.
Beam measurement is very important for accelerators. In this paper, modern digital beam measurement techniques based on IQ(In-phase & Quadrature-phase) analysis are discussed. Based on this method and high-speed high-resolution analog-to-digital conversion, we have completed three beam measurement electronics systems designed for the China Spallation Neutron Source(CSNS), Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility(SSRF), and Accelerator Driven Sub-critical system(ADS). Core techniques of hardware design and real-time system calibration are discussed, and performance test results of these three instruments are also presented.
Embedded RAM blocks(BRAMs) in field programmable gate arrays(FPGAs) are susceptible to single event effects(SEEs) induced by environmental factors such as cosmic rays, heavy ions, alpha particles and so on. As technology scales, the issue will be more serious. In order to tackle this issue, two different error correcting codes(ECCs), the shortened Hamming codes and shortened BCH codes, are investigated in this paper. The concrete design methods of the codes are presented. Also, the codes are both implemented in flash-based FPGAs. Finally, the synthesis report and simulation results are presented in the paper. Moreover, heavy-ion experiments are performed, and the experimental results indicate that the error cross-section of the device using the shortened Hamming codes can be reduced by two orders of magnitude compared with the device without mitigation, and no errors are discovered in the experiments for the device using the shortened BCH codes.
Ray effects are an inherent problem of the discrete ordinates method. RAY3D, a functional module of ARES, which is a discrete ordinates code system, employs a semi-analytic first collision source method to mitigate ray effects. This method decomposes the flux into uncollided and collided components, and then calculates them with an analytical method and discrete ordinates method respectively. In this article, RAY3D is validated by the Kobayashi benchmarks and applied to the neutron beamline shielding problem of China Spallation Neutron Source(CSNS) target station. The numerical results of the Kobayashi benchmarks indicate that the solutions of DONTRAN3D with RAY3D agree well with the Monte Carlo solutions. The dose rate at the end of the neutron beamline is less than 10.83 μSv/h in the CSNS target station neutron beamline shutter model. RAY3D can effectively mitigate the ray effects and obtain relatively reasonable results.
Energy calibration of resistive charge division-based position-sensitive silicon detectors is achieved by parabolic fitting in the traditional method, where the systematic variations of vertex and curvature of the parabola with energy must be considered. In this paper we extend the traditional method in order to correct the fitting function, simplify the procedure of calibration and improve the experimental data quality. Instead of a parabolic function as used in the traditional method, a new function describing the relation of position and energy is introduced. The energy resolution of the 8.088 MeV α decay of 213Rn is determined to be about 87 keV(FWHM), which is better than the result of the traditional method, 104 keV(FWHM). The improved method can be applied to the energy calibration of resistive charge division-based position-sensitive silicon detectors with various performances.
The project of a 10 MeV PET cyclotron accelerator for medical diagnosis and treatment was started at Amirkabir University of Technology in 2012. The low-level RF system of the cyclotron accelerator is designed to stabilize acceleration voltage and control the resonance frequency of the cavity. In this work an Intelligent Low Level Radio Frequency Circuit or ILLRF, suitable for most AVF cyclotron accelerators, is designed using a beam monitoring device and narrow band tunable band-pass filter. In this design, the RF phase detection does not need signal processing by a microcontroller.
The fast extraction kicker system is one of the most important accelerator components and the main source of impedance in the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron of the China Spallation Neutron Source. It is necessary to understand the kicker impedance before its installation into the tunnel. Conventional and improved wire methods are employed in the impedance measurement. The experimental results for the kicker impedance are explained by comparison with simulation using CST PARTICLE STUDIO. The simulation and measurement results confirm that the window-frame ferrite geometry and the end plate are the important structures causing coupling impedance. It is proved in the measurements that the mismatching from the power form network to the kicker leads to a serious oscillation sideband of the longitudinal and vertical impedance and the oscillation can be reduced by ferrite absorbing material.
A kicker control system is used for beam extraction and injection between two cooling storage rings(CSRs) at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou(HIRFL). To meet the requirements of special physics experiments, the kicker controller has been upgraded, with a new controller designed based on ARM+DSP+FPGA technology and monolithic circuit architecture, which can achieve a precision time delay of 2.5 ns. In September 2014, the new kicker control system was installed in the kicker field, and the test experiment using the system was completed. In addition, a pre-trigger signal was provided by the controller, which was designed to synchronize the beam diagnostic system and physics experiments. Experimental results indicate that the phenomena of "missed kick" and "inefficient kick" were not observed, and the multichannel trigger signal delay could be adjusted individually for kick power supplies in digitization; thus, the beam transport efficiency was improved compared with that of the original system. The fast extraction and injection experiment was successfully completed based on the new kicker control systems for HIRFL.
A logarithm processing algorithm to measure beam transverse size and position is proposed and preliminary experimental results in Hefei Light Source Ⅱ(HLS Ⅱ) are given. The algorithm is based on only 4 successive channels of 16 anode channels of multianode photomultiplier tube(MAPMT) R5900U-00-L16, which has typical rise time of 0.6 ns and effective area of 0.8×16 mm for a single anode channel. In the paper, we first elaborate the simulation results of the algorithm with and without channel inconsistency. Then we calibrate the channel inconsistency and verify the algorithm using a general current signal processor Libera Photon in a low-speed scheme. Finally we get turn-by-turn beam size and position and calculate the vertical tune in a high-speed scheme. The experimental results show that measured values fit well with simulation results after channel differences are calibrated, and the fractional part of the tune in vertical direction is 0.3628, which is very close to the nominal value 0.3621.
Central RF frequency is a key parameter of storage rings. This paper presents the measurement of central RF frequency of the HLS-Ⅱ storage ring with the sextupole modulation method. Firstly, the basis of central RF frequency measurement of the electron storage ring is briefly introduced. Then, the error sources and the optimized measurement method for the HLS-Ⅱ storage ring are discussed. The workflow of a self-compiled Matlab script used in central RF frequency measurement is also described. Finally, the results achieved by using two data processing methods to cross-check each other are shown. The measured value of the central RF frequency demonstrates that the circumference deviation of the HLS-Ⅱ storage ring is less than 1 mm.
A new technique has been developed for direct measurement of the differential X-ray absorption fine structure(XAFS) spectrum by the energy-modulation method. To acquire the energy-oscillating incident X-ray beam, a piezoelectric actuator is used to control the double-crystal monochromator. A logarithmic converter circuit and a lock-in amplifier are used to extract the modulated signals. The normal and differential XAFS spectra of the Mn K-edge of Li2MnO3 have been collected. The X-ray-absorption near-edge-structure(XANES) spectra verify that the signal-to-noise ratio has been greatly improved by the new technique, and the extended X-ray absorption fine structure(EXAFS) spectra demonstrate that this new technique can efficiently enhance the signals of the backscattering atoms.
Due to high reflectivity and high resolution of X-ray pulses, diamond is one of the most popular Bragg crystals serving as the reflecting mirror and mono-chromator in the next generation of free electron lasers(FELs). The energy deposition of X-rays will result in thermal heating, and thus lattice expansion of the diamond crystal, which may degrade the performance of X-ray FELs. In this paper, the thermal loading effect of diamond crystal for X-ray FEL oscillators has been systematically studied by combined simulation with Geant4 and ANSYS, and its dependence on the environmental temperature, crystal size, X-ray pulse repetition rate and pulse energy are presented. Our results show that taking the thermal loading effects into account, X-ray FEL oscillators are still robust and promising with an optimized design.
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry(DEXA) has been widely applied to measure the bone mineral density(BMD) and soft-tissue composition of the human body. However, the use of DEXA is greatly limited for low-Z materials such as soft tissues due to their weak absorption, while X-ray phase-contrast imaging(XPCI) shows significantly improved contrast in comparison with the conventional standard absorption-based X-ray imaging for soft tissues. In this paper, we propose a novel X-ray phase-contrast method to measure the area density of low-Z materials, including a single-energy method and a dual-energy method. The single-energy method is for the area density calculation of one low-Z material, while the dual-energy method aims to calculate the area densities of two low-Z materials simultaneously. Comparing the experimental and simulation results with the theoretical ones, the new method proves to have the potential to replace DEXA in area density measurement. The new method sets the prerequisites for a future precise and low-dose area density calculation method for low-Z materials.
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