2013 Vol. 37, No. 9
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The annihilation type diagrams are di cult to calculate in any kind of model or method. Encouraged by the successful calculation of pure annihilation type B decays in the perturbative QCD factorization approach, we calculate the pure annihilation type D→PP(V) decays in the perturbative QCD approach based on the kT factorization. Although the expansion parameter 1/mD is not very small, our leading order numerical results agree with the existing experimental data for most channels. We expect more accurate observation from experiments, which can help us learn about the dynamics of D meson weak decays.
In this paper we study the semileptonic decays of Bc-→(ηc,J/Ψ)l-vl. We first evaluate the Bc→(ηc,J/Ψ) transition form factors F0(q2), F+(q2), V(q2) and A0,1,2(q2) by employing the pQCD factorization approach, and then we calculate the branching ratios for all considered semileptonic decays. Based on the numerical results and the phenomenological analysis, we find that: (a) the pQCD predictions for the values of the Bc→ηc and Bc→J/Ψ transition form factors agree well with those obtained by using other methods; (b) the pQCD predictions for the branching ratios of the considered decays are Br(Bc-→ηc e-ve(μ-vμ)=(4.41-1.09+1.22)×10-3, Br(Bc-→ηcτ-vτ) =(1.37-0.34+0.37)×10-3, Br(Bc-→J/Ψ e-ve(μ-vμ)) =(10.03-1.18+1.33)×10-3, and Br(Bc-→J/Ψτ-vτ) =(2.92-0.34+0.40)×10-3; and (c) we also define and calculate two ratios of the branching ratios Rηc and RJ/Ψ, which will be tested by LHCb and the forthcoming Super-B experiments.
We have used the recent effective field theory (EFT) which is constructed from two-and three-nucleon interactions, using minimal substitution in the momentum dependence of these interactions. We present the calculations of the fore-aft asymmetry of γ-rays in the reaction 2H(n,γ)3H which are based on EFT up to next-to-next-to leading order (N2LO). The results are compared with the recently reported calculations and measurements of the fore-aft asymmetry of γ-rays from neutron-deuteron radiative capture. The calculated fore-aft asymmetry of the nd radiative capture process above deuteron breakup threshold is in good agreement with the available experimental data up to 20 MeV.
Neighboring azimuthal bin-bin multiplicity correlation is suggested to be a good measure for internal layer-to-layer interactions of the formed matter in relativistic heavy ion collisions. It is shown to be directly related to the shear viscosity of the formed matter. As an application of this method, the shear viscosity in the samples generated by a multi-phase transport model (AMPT) is estimated. The results are in qualitative agreement with the theoretical calculation from microscopic interactions, i.e., the larger the scattering cross section, the smaller the shear viscosity.
To obtain a quantitative understanding of the influence of temperature on the performance of multi-gap resistive plate chambers (MRPCs), we have tested the performance of a 10-gap, 12-pad, 2×2×12 cm2 active area MRPC at different temperatures with cosmic rays. Presented are results from measurements of high-voltage scans, noise rate, dark current, streamer, time resolution, count rate, charge spectrum, and detection efficiency. The test results show that the MRPC performance is significantly affected by temperature arising from the temperature-dependence of the glass resistivity.
A GEANT4-based Monte-Carlo (MC) model is developed to study the performance of endcap time-of-flight (ETOF) at BESⅢ. It's found that the multiple scattering effects, mainly from the materials at the MDC endcap, can cause multi-hit on the ETOF's readout cell and significantly influence the timing property of ETOF. A multi-gap resistive plate chamber (MRPC) with a smaller readout cell structure is more suitable for the ETOF detector due to significantly reduced multi-hit rate (per channel), from 71.5% for currently-used scintillator-based ETOF to 21.8% or 16.7% for MRPC-based ETOF, depending on the readout pad size used. The timing performance of an MRPC ETOF is also improved. These simulation results suggest and guide an ETOF upgrade effort at BESⅢ.
We study the response function of the neutron wall for 300 MeV neutrons with GEANT4 simulations. The methods to find the correct neutron incident position and time are discussed, and the neutron emission angle and energy are reconstructed and compared with the simulation.
The separation and reconstructions of charged hadron and neutral hadron from their overlapped showers in an electromagnetic calorimeter is very important for the reconstructions of some particles with hadronic decays, for example the tau reconstruction in the searches for the Standard Model and supersymmetric Higgs bosons at the LHC. In this paper, a method combining the shower cluster in an electromagnetic calorimeter and the parametric formula for hadron showers, was developed to separate the overlapped showers between charged hadron and neutral hadron. Taking the hadronic decay containing one charged pion and one neutral pion in the final status of tau for example, satisfied results of the separation of the overlapped showers, the reconstructions of the energy and positions of the hadrons were obtained. An improved result for the tau reconstruction with this decay model can be also achieved after the application of the proposed method.
In the recent decades of particle accelerator R&D area, the fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator has become a highlight for some advantages of its higher beam intensity and lower cost, although there are still some technical challenges. In this paper, the FFAG accelerator is adopted to accelerate a helium ion beam on the one hand for the study of helium embrittlement on fusion reactor envelope material and on the other hand for promoting the conception research and design of the FFAG accelerator and exploring the possibility of developing high power FFAG accelerators. The conventional period focusing unit of the helium ion FFAG accelerator and three-dimensional model of the large aperture combinatorial magnet by OPERA-TOSCA are given. For low energy and low revolution frequency, induction acceleration is proposed to replace conventional radio frequency (RF) acceleration for the helium ion FFAG accelerator, which avoids the potential breakdown of the acceleration field caused by the wake field and improves the acceleration repetition frequency to gain higher beam intensity. The main parameters and three-dimensional model of induction cavity are given. Two special constraint waveforms are proposed to refrain from particle accelerating time slip (ΔT) caused by accelerating voltage drop of flat top and energy deviation. The particle longitudinal motion in two waveforms is simulated.
A post-acceleration system based on the accelerators at CSNS (China Spallation Neutron Source) is proposed to build a super-beam facility for neutrino physics. Two post-acceleration schemes, one using superconducting dipole magnets in the main ring and the other using room temperature magnets, have been studied, both to achieve the final proton energy of 128 GeV and the beam power of 4 MW by taking 10% of the CSNS beam from the neutron source. The main design features and the comparison for the two schemes are presented. The CSNS super-beam facility will be very competitive in long-baseline neutrino physics studies, compared with other super-beam facilities proposed in the world.
In this paper we will show a general method of how to make an optimized parameter design of a circular e+e- Higgs factory by using analytical expression of maximum beam-beam parameter and beamstrahlung beam lifetime starting from a given design goal and technical limitations. A parameter space has been explored. Based on beam parameters scan and RF parameters scan, a set of optimized parameter designs for 50 km Circular Higgs Factory (CHF) with different RF frequency was proposed.
Stripping injection is one of the crucial stages in the accumulation process of the hadron therapy synchrotron HITFiL (Heavy Ion Therapy Facility in Lanzhou). In order to simulate the stripping injection process of carbon ions for HITFiL, the interactions between carbon ions and foil has been studied, and simulated with a code developed by ourselves. The optimized parameters of the injecting beam and the scheme of the injection system have been presented for HITFiL.
Technological advancements are strongly required to fulfill the demands of new accelerator devices with the highest accelerating gradients and operation reliability for the future colliders. To this purpose an extensive R&D regarding molybdenum coatings on copper is in progress. In this contribution we describe chemical composition, deposition quality and resistivity properties of different molybdenum coatings obtained via sputtering. The deposited films are thick metallic disorder layers with different resistivity values above and below the molibdenum dioxide reference value. Chemical and electrical properties of these sputtered coatings have been characterized by Rutherford backscattering, XANES and photoemission spectroscopy. We will also consider multiple cells standing wave section coated by a molybdenum layer designed to improve the performance of X-Band accelerating systems.
For the HLS-Ⅱ bunch current measurement system, in order to obtain the absolute value of bunch current, the calibration factor should be determined by using DCCT. At the HLS storage ring, the stretch effect of bunch length is observed and the change rate is about 19% when the bunch current decays over time and this will affect the performance of bunch current detection. To overcome the bunch stretch influence in the HLS-Ⅱ bunch current measurement, an evaluation about pickup type and signal processing is carried out. Strip-line pickup and button pickup are selectable, and the theoretical analysis and demonstration experiment are performed to find out an acceptable solution for the bunch current measurement system at HLS-Ⅱ. The experimental data analysis shows that the normalized calibration factor will change by about 27% when the bunch length changes by about 19% if using the button pickup and processing by peak value of bunch signal; the influence will be reduced to 2% less if adopting the strip-line pickup and integral.
High-pressure behavior of tetramethylsilane is investigated by synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering at pressures up to 30 GPa and room temperature. Our results reveal the analogous phase transitions, though slight hysteresis for the certain phases. A new phase is found to appear at 4.2 GPa due to the disappeared Raman mode. These findings offer the possibility to understand the evolution of the H-H bonding with pressure in such hydrogen-rich compounds.
Yttrium oxide thin films have been deposited on Si (100) substrate by using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), hard and soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAFS) are employed to investigate the origin of oxygen vacancies and their influence on the structure and atomic distributions. The XRD results indicate that the Y2O3 thin films strongly orient the (111) axis of the cubic structure. Analyses on the Y K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structures reveal that the coordination number of Y atoms decreases and the bond length of Y-O contracts due to the loss of oxygen atoms. The X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis together with a theoretical approach further confirms the oxygen vacancies formation and their possible location.
In situ high pressure XRD diffraction and Raman spectroscopy have been performed on 12 nm CeO2 nanoparticles. Surprisingly, under quasihydrostatic conditions, 12 nm CeO2 nanoparticles maintain the fluorite-type structure in the whole pressure range (0-51 GPa) during the experiments, much more stable than the bulk counterpart (PT～31 GPa). In contrast, they experienced phase transition at pressure as low as 26 GPa under non-hydrostatic conditions (adopting CsCl as pressure medium). Additionally, 32-36 nm CeO2 nanoparticles exhibit an onset pressure of phase transition at 35 GPa under quasihydrostatic conditions, and this onset pressure is much lower than our result. Further analysis shows both the experimental condition (i.e., quasihydrostatic or non-hydrostatic) and grain size effect have a significant impact on the high pressure behaviors of CeO2 nanomaterials.
There are many active protecting methods including Electrostatic Fields, Confined Magnetic Field, Unconfined Magnetic Field and Plasma Shielding etc. for defending the high-energy solar particle events (SPE) and Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) in deep space exploration. The concept of using cold plasma to expand a magnetic field is the best one of all possible methods so far. The magnetic field expansion caused by plasma can improve its protective efficiency of space particles. One kind of plasma generator has been developed and installed into the cylindrical permanent magnet in the eccentric. A plasma stream is produced using a helical-shaped antenna driven by a radio-frequency (RF) power supply of 13.56 MHz, which exits from both sides of the magnet and makes the magnetic field expand on one side. The discharging belts phenomenon is similar to the Earth's radiation belt, but the mechanism has yet to be understood. A magnetic probe is used to measure the magnetic field expansion distributions, and the results indicate that the magnetic field intensity increases under higher increments of the discharge power.
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