## 2021 Vol. 45, No. 1

Display Method: |

2021, 45(1): 013101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abc067

**Abstract:**

We revisit the hyperon weak radiative decays in the framework of the non-relativistic constituent quark model. This study confirms the nonlocal feature of the hyperon weak radiative transition operators, which are dominated by the pole terms, and an overall self-consistent description of the available experimental data for the Cabibbo-favored hyperon weak radiative decays is presented. It provides a natural mechanism for evading the Hara theorem, where sizeable parity-violating contributions can come from the intermediate orbital excitations. Cancellations between pole terms also explain the significant

*SU*(3) flavor symmetry breaking manifested by the experimental data. We also discuss several interesting selection rules arising from either the electromagnetic or the weak interaction vertices. These features suggest nontrivial relations among various hyperon decays.

2021, 45(1): 013102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abc0ce

**Abstract:**

We consider a class of models with extra complex scalars that are charged under both the Standard Model and a hidden strongly coupled

2021, 45(1): 013103. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abc16a

**Abstract:**

The minimal

2021, 45(1): 013104. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abc16b

**Abstract:**

The heavy quark effective theory vastly reduces the weak-decay form factors of hadrons containing one heavy quark. Many works attempt to directly apply this theory to hadrons with multiple heavy quarks. In this paper, we examine this confusing application by the instantaneous Bethe-Salpeter method from a phenomenological perspective, and give the numerical results for

2021, 45(1): 013105. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abc16d

**Abstract:**

The spectroscopic parameters and decay channels of the axial-vector tetraquark

*M*is one of the vector mesons

2021, 45(1): 013106. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abc1d5

**Abstract:**

The decay

2021, 45(1): 013107. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abc1d4

**Abstract:**

We attempt to clarify several aspects concerning the recently presented four-dimensional Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity. We argue that the limiting procedure outlined in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 124, 081301 (2020)] generally involves ill-defined terms in the four dimensional field equations. Potential ways to circumvent this issue are discussed, alongside remarks regarding specific solutions of the theory. We prove that, although linear perturbations are well behaved around maximally symmetric backgrounds, the equations for second-order perturbations are ill-defined even around a Minkowskian background. Additionally, we perform a detailed analysis of the spherically symmetric solutions and find that the central curvature singularity can be reached within a finite proper time.

2021, 45(1): 013108. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abc1d2

**Abstract:**

The problem of the flat limits of the scalar and spinor fields on the de Sitter expanding universe is considered in the traditional adiabatic vacuum and in the new rest frame vacuum we proposed recently, in which the frequencies are separated in the rest frames as in special relativity. It is shown that only in the rest frame vacuum can the Minkowskian flat limit be reached naturally for any momentum, whereas in the adiabatic vacuum, this limit remains undefined in rest frames in which the momentum vanishes. An important role is played by the phases of the fundamental solutions in the rest frame vacuum, which must be regularized to obtain the desired Minkowskian flat limits. This procedure fixes the phases of the scalar mode functions and Dirac spinors, resulting in their definitive expressions derived here. The physical consequence is that, in the rest frame vacuum, the flat limits of the one-particle operators are simply the corresponding operators of special relativity.

2021, 45(1): 013109. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abc1d3

**Abstract:**

In this article, we study the ground states and the first radial excited states of the flavor antitriplet heavy baryon states

2021, 45(1): 013110. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abc23f

**Abstract:**

Recently, an action principle for the

2021, 45(1): 013111. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abc240

**Abstract:**

We perform a potential analysis for the holographic Schwinger effect in a deformed

2021, 45(1): 013112. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abc241

**Abstract:**

The strangeonium-like

2021, 45(1): 013113. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abc242

**Abstract:**

Experimental data on

2021, 45(1): 013114. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abc244

**Abstract:**

We present a dark matter model to explain the excess events in the electron recoil data recently reported by the Xenon1T experiment. In our model, dark matter

2021, 45(1): 013115. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abc538

**Abstract:**

We extend the auxiliary-mass-flow (AMF) method originally developed for Feynman loop integration to calculate integrals which also involve phase-space integration. The flow of the auxiliary mass from the boundary (

2021, 45(1): 013116. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abc539

**Abstract:**

We investigated different entanglement properties of a holographic QCD (hQCD) model with a critical end point at the finite baryon density. Firstly, we considered the holographic entanglement entropy (HEE) of this hQCD model in a spherical shaped region and a strip shaped region. It was determined that the HEE of this hQCD model in both regions can reflect QCD phase transition. Moreover, although the area formulas and minimal area equations of the two regions were quite different, the HEE exhibited a similar behavior on the QCD phase diagram. Therefore, we assert that the behavior of the HEE on the QCD phase diagram is independent of the shape of the subregions. However, the HEE is not an ideal parameter for the characterization of the entanglement between different subregions of a thermal system. As such, we investigated the mutual information (MI), conditional mutual information (CMI), and the entanglement of purification (Ep) in different strip shaped regions. We determined that the three entanglement quantities exhibited some universal behavior; their values did not change significantly in the hadronic matter phase but increased rapidly with the increase in

*T*and

2021, 45(1): 013117. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abc682

**Abstract:**

By applying the nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics factorization formalism to

2021, 45(1): 013118. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abc683

**Abstract:**

We demonstrate that the recently proposed soft gluon factorization (SGF) is equivalent to the nonrelativistic QCD (NRQCD) factorization for heavy quarkonium production or decay, which means that, for any given process, these two factorization theories are either both valid or both violated. We use two methods to arrive at this conclusion. In the first method, we apply the two factorization theories to the physical process

2021, 45(1): 014001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abc0cb

**Abstract:**

The level structures of

*Z*= 38 or

*Z*= 40 subshell closure. For the higher-spin states, multi-particle excitations, including the excitation of

*N*= 56 subshell closure into the high-

*j*intruder

2021, 45(1): 014101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abc069

**Abstract:**

We study the emission of fragments in central collisions of light and heavily charged systems of

^{40}Ar+

^{45}Sc and

^{84}Kr+

^{197}Au, respectively, using the Quantum Molecular Dynamics (QMD) model as the primary model. The fragments are identified using an energy based clusterization algorithm, i.e., the Simulated Annealing Clusterization Algorithm (SACA). The charge distributions of intermediate mass fragments [3≤

*τ*and

*P*), information entropy (

*H*), and Zipf's law are also analyzed to find the exact energy of the onset of fragmentation. Our detailed analysis predicts that an energy point exists between 20-23.1 MeV/nucleon, which is very close to the experimentally observed value of 23.9 MeV/nucleon for the

^{40}Ar+

^{45}Sc reaction. We also find that the critical energy deduced using Zipf's law is higher than those predicted from other critical exponents. Moreover, no minimum is found for

*τ*values of the highly charged system of

^{84}Kr+

^{197}Au, in agreement with experimental findings and various theoretical calculations. We observe that the QMD + SACA model calculations are in agreement with the experimental observations. This agreement supports our results regarding the energy point of the liquid-gas phase transition and the onset of fragmentation.

2021, 45(1): 014102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abc065

**Abstract:**

We use a geometric model for hadron polarization in heavy ion collisions with an emphasis on the rapidity dependence. The model is based on the model of Brodsky, Gunion, and Kuhn, as well as the Bjorken scaling model. We make predictions regarding the rapidity dependence of global

2021, 45(1): 014103. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abc0cc

**Abstract:**

We analytically solve the Sudakov suppressed Balitsky-Kovchegov evolution equation with fixed and running coupling constants in the saturation region. The analytic solution of the

*S*-matrix shows that the

2021, 45(1): 014104. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abc169

**Abstract:**

We present a dispersive representation of the

*S*

2021, 45(1): 014105. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abc1d1

**Abstract:**

2021, 45(1): 014106. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abc23d

**Abstract:**

In this paper, we study the symmetry energy and the Wigner energy in the binding energy formula for atomic nuclei. We simultaneously extract the

2021, 45(1): 014107. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abc245

**Abstract:**

Ultraperipheral collisions (UPCs) of protons and nuclei are important for the study of the photoproduction of vector mesons and exotic states. The photoproduction of vector mesons in the pentaquark resonance channel in

*p*-

*p*-

*p*-

*p*-

*t*-channel at the RHIC.

2021, 45(1): 014108. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abc248

**Abstract:**

The problem of the deuteron interaction with lithium nuclei, treated as a system of two coupled pointlike clusters, is formulated to calculate the cross sections of the

*d*+Li reaction. The

*d*+Li reaction mechanism is described using the Faddeev theory for the three-body problem of deuteron-nucleus interaction. This theory is slightly extended for calculation of the stripping processes

^{6}Li(

*d*,

*p*)

^{7}Li,

^{7}Li(

*d*,

*p*)

^{8}Li,

^{6}Li(

*d*,

*n*)

^{7}Be, and

^{7}Li(

*d*,

*n*)

^{8}Be, as well as fragmentation reactions yielding tritium,

^{6}Li

^{7}Li

2021, 45(1): 014109. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abc536

**Abstract:**

Qualities of nucleons, such as the fundamental parameter mass, might be modified in extreme conditions relative to those of isolated nucleons. We show the ratio of the EMC-effect tagged nucleon mass to that of the free one (

2021, 45(1): 014110. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abc684

**Abstract:**

In this contribution, the

*et al*., Phys. Rev. Lett.

**115**, 242502 (2015)], implying that

*et al*. [H. F. Zhang

*et al*., Phys. Rev. C

**80**, 057301 (2009)] with higher precision. The standard deviation of the

*et al*., Phys. Rev. Lett.

**122**, 192503 (2019)] and

*et al*., Phys. Lett. B

**777**, 212 (2018)] are in good agreement with the experimental

2021, 45(1): 015101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abc068

**Abstract:**

We investigate the evolution of abundance of the asymmetric thermal Dark Matter when its annihilation rate at chemical decoupling is boosted by the Sommerfeld enhancement. Next, we discuss the effect of kinetic decoupling on the relic abundance of asymmetric Dark Matter when the interaction rate depends on velocity. Usually, the relic density of asymmetric Dark Matter is analyzed in the frame of chemical decoupling. Indeed, after decoupling from chemical equilibrium, asymmetric Dark Matter particles and anti-particles are still in kinetic equilibrium for a while. This has no effect for the case of

*s-*wave annihilation since there is no temperature dependence in this case. However, kinetic decoupling has impacts for the case of

*p-*wave annihilation and Sommerfeld enhanced

*s-*and

*p-*wave annihilations. We investigate in detail the extent to which kinetic decoupling affects the relic abundance of asymmetric Dark Matter particles and anti-particles. We find the constraints on the cross section and asymmetry factor using observational data of the relic density of Dark Matter.

2021, 45(1): 015102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abc066

**Abstract:**

The transonic phenomenon of black hole accretion and the existence of the photon sphere characterize strong gravitational fields near a black hole horizon. Here, we study the spherical accretion flow onto general parametrized spherically symmetric black hole spacetimes. We analyze the accretion process for various perfect fluids, such as the isothermal fluids of ultra-stiff, ultra-relativistic, and sub-relativistic types, and the polytropic fluid. The influences of additional parameters, beyond the Schwarzschild black hole in the framework of general parameterized spherically symmetric black holes, on the flow behavior of the above-mentioned test fluids are studied in detail. In addition, by studying the accretion of the ideal photon gas, we further discuss the correspondence between the sonic radius of the accreting photon gas and the photon sphere for general parameterized spherically symmetric black holes. Possible extensions of our analysis are also discussed.

Bulk viscosity for interacting strange quark matter and

*r*-mode instability windows for strange stars
2021, 45(1): 015103. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abc0cd

**Abstract:**

We investigate the bulk viscosity of strange quark matter in the framework of the equivparticle model, where analytical formulae are obtained for certain temperature ranges, which can be readily applied to those with various quark mass scalings. In the case of adopting a quark mass scaling with both linear confinement and perturbative interactions, the obtained bulk viscosity increases by

2021, 45(1): 015104. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abc0cf

**Abstract:**

Hawking-Page phase transitions between the thermal anti-de Sitter vacuum and charged black holes surrounded by quintessence are studied in the extended phase space. The quintessence field, with the state parameter

2021, 45(1): 015105. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abc16c

**Abstract:**

Recently, a novel four-dimensional Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet (4EGB) theory of gravity was proposed by Glavan and Lin [D. Glavan and C. Lin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 124, 081301 (2020)], which includes a regularized Gauss-Bonnet term using the re-scalaring of the Gauss-Bonnet coupling constant

2021, 45(1): 015106. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abc23e

**Abstract:**

Inspired by the hypothesis of the black hole molecule, with the help of the Hawking temperature, entropy, and the thermodynamic curvature of black holes, we propose a new measure of the relation between the interaction and the thermal motion of molecules of the AdS black hole as a preliminary and coarse-grained description. The proposed measure introduces a dimensionless ratio to characterize this relation and shows that there is indeed competition between the interactions of black hole molecules and their thermal motion. For a charged AdS black hole, below the critical dimensionless pressure, there are three transitions between the interaction and thermal motion states. In contrast, above the critical dimensionless pressure, only one transition takes place. For the Schwarzschild-AdS and five-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet AdS black holes, a transition always occurs between the interaction and thermal motion states.

2021, 45(1): 015107. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abc247

**Abstract:**

It was previously claimed by the author that black holes can be considered as topological insulators. Both black holes and topological insulators have boundary modes, and the boundary modes can be described by an effective BF theory. In this paper, the boundary modes on the horizons of black holes are analyzed using methods developed for topological insulators. BTZ black holes are analyzed first, and the results are found to be compatible with previous works. The results are then generalized to Kerr black holes, for which new results are obtained: dimensionless right- and left-temperatures can be defined and have well behavior in both the Schwarzschild limit

2021, 45(1): 015108. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abc537

**Abstract:**

Recent low-redshift observations have yielded the present-time Hubble parameter value

*X,*with negative density to the Friedmann equation, it can address the Hubble tension without changing the Planck's constraint on the matter and dark energy densities. To achieve a sufficiently small extra negative density, its equation-of-state parameter must satisfy

2021, 45(1): 015109. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abc53a

**Abstract:**

The cosmic distance relation (DDR) associates the angular diameters distance (

2021, 45(1): 015110. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abc680

**Abstract:**

It was found that dark matter (DM) in an intermediate-mass-ratio-inspiral (IMRI) system has a significant enhancement effect on the orbital eccentricity of a stellar massive compact object, such as a black hole (BH), which may be tested by space-based gravitational wave (GW) detectors, including LISA, Taiji, and Tianqin in future observations. In this paper, we study the enhancement effect of the eccentricity for an IMRI under different DM density profiles and center BH masses. Our results are as follows: (1) in terms of the general DM spike distribution, the enhancement of the eccentricity is basically consistent with the power-law profile, which indicates that it is reasonable to adopt the power-law profile; (2) in the presence of a DM spike, the different masses of the center BH will affect the eccentricity, which provides a new way for us to detect the BH's mass; and (3) considering the change in the eccentricity in the presence and absence of a DM spike, we find that it is possible to distinguish DM models by measuring the eccentricity at a scale of approximately

2021, 45(1): 015111. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abc681

**Abstract:**

In this paper, by introducing the Lorentz-invariance-violation (LIV) class of dispersion relations (DR) suppressed by the second power

*sensitive*to changes in the energy of the radiation particle. However, at the same energy level, it was

*insensitive*to changes in the charge of the radiation particle. This is phenomenological evidence in support of the LIV-DR as a candidate for describing the effect of quantum gravity. Moreover, when the effect of the LIV was included, we discovered that the statistical correlations with the Planck-scale corrections between successive emissions could leak out information via radiation. We also determined that black hole radiation via tunneling is an entropy conservation process, and no information loss occurred during radiation, where the interpretation of the entropy of a black hole is addressed. Finally, we concluded that black hole evaporation is still a unitary process in the context of quantum gravity.

**ISSN** 1674-1137 **CN** 11-5641/O4

Original research articles, Ietters and reviews Covering theory and experiments in the fieids of

- Particle physics
- Nuclear physics
- Particle and nuclear astrophysics
- Cosmology

Author benefits

- A SCOAP3 participating journal - free Open Access publication for qualifying articles
- Average 24 days to first decision
- Fast-track publication for selected articles
- Subscriptions at over 3000 institutions worldwide
- Free English editing on all accepted articles

News

- The 2021 National Day closure
- Notification of CPC website outage
- The 2021 summer holiday-Office closure
- The Most Influential Paper Award of Chinese Physics Society in 2021
- The 2021 Chinese New Year-Office closure

Meet Editor